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International Committee Of The Red Cross
The INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland
Switzerland
and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 ( Protocol I , Protocol II ) and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts . Such victims include war wounded, prisoners , refugees , civilians , and other non-combatants . The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and 190 National Societies . It is the oldest and most honoured organization within the Movement and one of the most widely recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, and 1963
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Swiss Army
The SWISS ARMED FORCES (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters. Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent of the military and the rest are conscripts or volunteers aged 19 to 34 (in some cases up to 50). Because of Switzerland
Switzerland
's long history of neutrality , the armed forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, but it does participate in international peacekeeping missions . Switzerland
Switzerland
is part of the NATO Partnership for Peace programme. The structure of the Swiss militia system stipulates that the soldiers keep their own personal equipment, including all personally assigned weapons, at home (until 2007 this also included ammunition ). Compulsory military service applies to all male Swiss citizens, with women serving voluntarily
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Guillaume Henri Dufour
GUILLAUME HENRI DUFOUR (15 September 1787 – 14 July 1875) was a Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer . He served under Napoleon I and held the office of General
General
four times in career, with the first being in 1847 when he led the Swiss forces to victory against the Sonderbund . Dufour presided over the First Geneva Convention which established the International Red Cross . He was founder and president of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography
Topography
from 1838 to 1865. The Dufourspitze (the highest mountain in Switzerland) in the Monte Rosa Massif is named after Dufour. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Saint Antoine Bridge
Bridge
* 3 Memorials * 4 References * 5 External links CAREERDufour was born in Konstanz, where his parents were temporarily exiled from Geneva
Geneva

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Grand Duchy Of Baden
The GRAND DUCHY OF BADEN (German : Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest of German Empire
German Empire
on the east bank of the Rhine
Rhine
. It existed between 1806 and 1918. It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate
Margraviate
of Baden
Baden
and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It then became the much-enlarged Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Baden through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1803–06 and was a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, remaining a Grand Duchy
Duchy
until 1918 when it became part of the Weimar Republic as the Republic of Baden
Republic of Baden

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Kingdom Of Bavaria
The KINGDOM OF BAVARIA (German : Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris , in which Bavaria
Bavaria
ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
to the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
while receiving Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
and Würzburg
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Second French Empire
The SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE (French: Deuxième Empire
Empire
français) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic , in France
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Théodore Maunoir
Dr. THéODORE MAUNOIR (1 June 1806 – 26 April 1869) was a Swiss surgeon and co-founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Théodore Maunoir
Théodore Maunoir
was born to a wealthy family of doctors in Geneva
Geneva
. Following family tradition he studied medicine in England and France and gained his doctorate in surgery in 1833. After his return to his home city, he became a member of the Geneva
Geneva
Commission for Hygiene and Health and the Geneva
Geneva
Society for Public Welfare . He was considered extremely intelligent and charming with an excellent sense of humor. When he married for the first time, he took on additional children from his wife's previous marriage. When she died, he married again and had further children with his second wife
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Louis Appia
LOUIS PAUL AMéDéE APPIA (13 October 1818 - 1 May 1898) was a Swiss surgeon with special merit in the area of military medicine. In 1863 he became a member of the Geneva
Geneva
"Committee of Five", which was the precursor to the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
. Six years later he met Clara Barton
Clara Barton
, an encounter which had significant influence on Clara Barton's subsequent endeavours to found a Red Cross society in the United States and her campaign for an accession of the US to the Geneva
Geneva
Convention of 1864. CONTENTS * 1 Education and career as a field surgeon * 2 Activity with the ICRC * 3 References * 4 External links EDUCATION AND CAREER AS A FIELD SURGEONAppia's parents, Paul Joseph Appia and Caroline Develey, originally came from Piedmont
Piedmont

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Battle Of Solferino
The BATTLE OF SOLFERINO (referred to in Italy
Italy
as the BATTLE OF SOLFERINO AND SAN MARTINO) on 24 June 1859 resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II (together known as the Franco-Sardinian Alliance) against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I . It was the last major battle in world history where all the armies were under the personal command of their monarchs. Perhaps 300,000 soldiers fought in the important battle, the largest since the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. There were about 130,000 Austrian troops and a combined total of 140,000 French and allied Piedmontese troops. After the battle, the Austrian Emperor refrained from further direct command of the army. The battle led the Swiss Jean-Henri Dunant to write his book, A Memory of Solferino
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Second Italian War Of Independence
The SECOND ITALIAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, also called the FRANCO-AUSTRIAN WAR, AUSTRO-SARDINIAN WAR or ITALIAN WAR OF 1859 (French : Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Forces * 3 The operations * 4 The peace * 5 Timeline 1859 * 6 References * 7 Further reading BACKGROUNDThe Piedmontese, following their defeat by Austria in the First Italian War of Independence , recognised their need for allies. This led Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour , the prime minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, to attempt to establish relations with other European powers, partially through Piedmont's participation in the Crimean War
Crimean War

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First Geneva Convention
The FIRST GENEVA CONVENTION for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held in 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions . It defines "the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts." After the first treaty was adopted in 1864, it was significantly revised and replaced in 1906, 1929, and finally 1949. It is inextricably linked to the International Committee of the Red Cross , which is both the instigator for the inception and enforcer of the articles in these conventions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Summary of provisions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
The 1864 Geneva
Geneva
Convention was instituted at a critical period in European political and military history
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Gustave Moynier
GUSTAVE MOYNIER (September 21, 1826 - August 21, 1910) was a Swiss Jurist who was active in many charitable organizations in Geneva
Geneva
. He was a co-founder of the "International Committee for Relief to the Wounded", which became the International Committee of the Red Cross after 1876. In 1864 he took over the position of President of the Committee from Guillaume-Henri Dufour , and he was also a major rival of the founder Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
. During his record long term of 46 years as president he did much to support the development of the Committee in the first decades after its creation. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Term as President of the ICRC * 3 References * 4 External links BACKGROUND Gustave Moynier (Source: www.redcross.int) Moynier came from a rich and established Geneva
Geneva
family of merchants and bankers
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The growing desire for an Irish Republic
Irish Republic
led to the Irish War of Independence , which resulted in Ireland
Ireland
seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the state was consequently renamed the " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". The UK financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars

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Kingdom Of Hanover
The KINGDOM OF HANOVER (German : Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era . It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (known informally as the Electorate of Hanover), and joined with 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover
Hanover
, a younger branch of the House of Welf
House of Welf
, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
until 1837, before being conquered by Prussia in 1866 and transformed into a Prussian province . Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover
Hanover
became part of the German Empire upon unification in January 1871
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United Kingdoms Of Sweden And Norway
b. ^ The written Norwegian language
Norwegian language
ceased to exist in the first half of the 16th century and was replaced by Danish. Written Danish was still used during the union with Sweden, but was slightly norwegianized in the latter half of the 19th century. In 1885, the Storting accepted Landsmål as an official written language at par with Danish. c. ^ 1820: 2,585,000 in Sweden, and 970,000 in Norway. 1905: 5,260,000 in Sweden, and 2,300,000 in Norway. d. ^ The Swedish Riksdag
Riksdag
was a diet composed of four estates until 1866, when it was transformed into a bicameral legislature . The Norwegian Storting was a unicameral legislature, where the cabinet needed support from the majority
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Kingdom Of Saxony
The KINGDOM OF SAXONY (German : Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany . From 1871 it was part of the German Empire . It became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony . Its capital was the city of Dresden , and its modern successor state is the Free State of Saxony
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