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International Committee Of The Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 (Protocol I, Protocol II) and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Napoléon III
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France
President of France
from 1848 to 1852 and, as Napoleon
Napoleon
III, the Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1852 to 1870. He was the only president of the French Second Republic
French Second Republic
and the head of the Second French Empire. The nephew and heir of Napoleon
Napoleon
I, he was the first Head of State
Head of State
of France
France
to hold the title of President, the first elected by a direct popular vote, and the youngest until the election of Emmanuel Macron in 2017
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Nursing
Nursing
Nursing
is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings
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Guillaume Henri Dufour
Guillaume Henri Dufour
Guillaume Henri Dufour
(15 September 1787 – 14 July 1875) was a Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer. He served under Napoleon I
Napoleon I
and held the office of General
General
four times in career, with the first being in 1847 when he led the Swiss forces to victory against the Sonderbund. Dufour presided over the First Geneva Convention which established the International Red Cross. He was founder and president of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography
Topography
from 1838 to 1865. The Dufourspitze
Dufourspitze
(the highest mountain in Switzerland) in the Monte Rosa Massif is named after Dufour.Contents1 Career 2 Saint Antoine Bridge 3 Memorials 4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] Dufour was born in Konstanz,[1] where his parents were temporarily exiled from Geneva
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Swiss Army
The Swiss Armed Forces
Swiss Armed Forces
(German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters. Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent[citation needed] of the military and the rest are conscripts or volunteers aged 19 to 34 (in some cases up to 50). Because of Switzerland's long history of neutrality, the armed forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, but it does participate in international peacekeeping missions
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Grand Duchy Of Baden
The Grand Duchy of Baden
Baden
(German: Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire
German Empire
on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918.[1] It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate
Margraviate
of Baden and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It then became the much-enlarged[1] Grand Duchy of Baden
Baden
through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1803–06 and was a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, remaining a Grand Duchy until 1918 when it became part of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
as the Republic of Baden
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Kingdom Of Bavaria
The Kingdom of Bavaria
Bavaria
(German: Königreich Bayern; Austro-Bavarian: Kinereich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria
Electorate of Bavaria
in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria
King of Bavaria
in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
to the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
while receiving Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
and Würzburg
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
was a sovereign country in western Europe, the predecessor to the modern United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. It was established on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars. Britain, with its unsurpassed Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and British Empire, became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War
Crimean War
with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century.[1] Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century
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Kingdom Of Hanover
The Kingdom of Hanover
Hanover
(German: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(known informally as the Electorate of Hanover), and joined with 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation
German Confederation
in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a younger branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837; a viceroy (usually a younger member of the British Royal Family) handled the administration of the Kingdom. A dynastic split, owing to differences in inheritance law, led to the Kingdom of Hannover receiving its own monarch in 1837
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Grand Duchy Of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871
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Prisoner
A prisoner, (also known as an inmate or detainee) is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or by forcible restraint. The term applies particularly to those on trial or serving a prison sentence in a prison.[1]Contents1 English law 2 History 3 Psychological effects3.1 In solitary confinement 3.2 Stockholm syndrome4 Inmate culture4.1 Convict code5 Rights5.1 United States6 Types 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEnglish law[edit] "Prisoner" is a legal term for a person who is imprisoned.[2] In section 1 of the Prison
Prison
Security Act 1992, the word "prisoner" means any person for the time being in a prison as a result of any requirement imposed by a court or otherwise that he be detained in legal custody.[3] "Prisoner" was a legal term for a person prosecuted for felony
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Battle Of Solferino
The Battle of Solferino
Solferino
(referred to in Italy
Italy
as the Battle of Solferino
Solferino
and San Martino) on 24 June 1859 resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II (together known as the Franco-Sardinian Alliance) against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I. It was the last major battle in world history where all the armies were under the personal command of their monarchs[citation needed]. Perhaps 300,000 soldiers fought in the important battle, the largest since the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. There were about 130,000 Austrian troops and a combined total of 140,000 French and allied Piedmontese troops. After the battle, the Austrian Emperor refrained from further direct command of the army. The battle led the Swiss Jean-Henri Dunant to write his book, A Memory of Solferino
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War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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