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International Commission For Optics
International
International
mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law, which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country.Contents1 Origin of the word 2 Meaning in particular fields 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 SourcesOrigin of the word[edit] The term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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International (other)
International
International
is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International

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Multinational Corporation
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise[5] is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.[6] A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE), a transnational enterprise (TNE), a transnational corporation (TNC), an international corporation, or a stateless corporation.[7] There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards, and that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, and even the military backing of their own wealthy host nation-states.Contents1 Overview 2 Theoretical background 3 Transnational corporations 4 Multinational enterprise 5
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Ido (language)
Ido /ˈiːdoʊ/ is a constructed language, derived from Reformed Esperanto, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds. Ido was specifically designed to be grammatically, orthographically, and lexicographically regular, and above all easy to learn and use. In this sense, Ido is classified as a constructed international auxiliary language. It is the most successful of many Esperanto
Esperanto
derivatives, called Esperantidos. Ido was created in 1907 out of a desire to reform perceived flaws in Esperanto, a language that had been created 20 years earlier to facilitate international communication. The name of the language traces its origin to the Esperanto
Esperanto
word ido, meaning "offspring",[2] since the language is a "descendant" of Esperanto
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Art
Art
Art
is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.[1][2] In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media.
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Art Movement
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years
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Letterist International
The Letterist International (LI) was a Paris-based collective of radical artists and theorists between 1952 and 1957. It was created by Guy Debord
Guy Debord
as a schism from Isidore Isou's Letterist group
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Situationist International
The Situationist International
Situationist International
(SI) was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists, intellectuals, and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972.[1] The intellectual foundations of the Situationist International <
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Stuckism
Stuckism
Stuckism
(/ˈstʌkɪzəm/) is an international art movement founded in 1999 by Billy Childish
Billy Childish
and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting as opposed to conceptual art.[2][3] By May 2017 the initial group of 13 British artists had expanded to 236 groups in 52 countries.[4] Childish and Thomson have issued several manifestos
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Globalization
Globalization
Globalization
or globalisation is the trend of increasing interaction between people on a worldwide scale due to advances in transportation and communication technology, nominally beginning with the steamship and the telegraph in the early to mid-1800s. With increased interactions between nation-states and individuals came the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture
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International Community
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. It does not refer literally to all nations or states in the world. The term is typically used to imply the existence of a common point of view towards such matters as specific issues of human rights
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International Relations
International relations
International relations
(IR) or international affairs, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science, an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, or an entirely independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. In all cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities) such as sovereign states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs), and the wider world-systems produced by this interaction
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Multilateralism
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.Contents1 Definitions 2 History 3 Challenges 4 Comparison with bilateralism 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further readingDefinitions[edit] Multilateralism
Multilateralism
was defined by Miles Kahler as "international governance" or global governance of the "many," and its central principle was "opposition [to] bilateral discriminatory arrangements that were believed to enhance the leverage of the powerful over the weak and to increase international conflict."[1] In 1990,
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Multinational State
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations. This is in contrast to a nation state, where a single nation accounts for the bulk of the population. Depending on the definition of "nation" (which touches on ethnicity, language, and political identity), a multinational state might also be multicultural or multilingual. Present-day examples of multinational states are Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Madagascar, Montenegro, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Historical multinational states that have since split into multiple sovereign states include Austria-Hungary, British India, Czechoslovakia, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia
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Interlinguistics
Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication. It is concerned with investigating how ethnic and auxiliary languages (lingua franca) work in such situations and with the possibilities of optimizing interlinguistic communication, for instance by use of international auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto
Esperanto
or Interlingua. These are languages that are created by an intentional intellectual effort, usually with the aim of facilitating interlinguistic communication, but there are also interlanguages that have arisen spontaneously. These are called pidgin languages
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Supranational
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The term is sometimes used to describe the European Union
European Union
(EU) as a new type of political entity.[1] It is the only entity that provides for international popular elections,[dubious – discuss] going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaties. The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts such as a substitute for international, transnational or glo
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