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Interlock Protocol
The interlock protocol, as described by Ron Rivest
Ron Rivest
and Adi Shamir, was designed to frustrate eavesdropper attack against two parties that use an anonymous key exchange protocol to secure their conversation. A further paper proposed using it as an authentication protocol, which was subsequently broken.Contents1 Brief history 2 How it works 3 The Bellovin/Merritt Attack 4 Forced-Latency Interlock Protocol 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBrief history[edit] Most cryptographic protocols rely on the prior establishment of secret or public keys or passwords. However, the Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol introduced the concept of two parties establishing a secure channel (that is, with at least some desirable security properties) without any such prior agreement. Unauthenticated Diffie–Hellman, as an anonymous key agreement protocol, has long been known to be subject to man in the middle attack
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Ron Rivest
Ronald Linn Rivest (/rɪˈvɛst/;[5][6] born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.[2] He is a member of MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Computer Science
(EECS) and a member of MIT's Computer Science
Computer Science
and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He was a member of the Election Assistance Commission's Technical Guidelines Development Committee, tasked with assisting the EAC in drafting the Voluntary Voting
Voting
System Guidelines.[7] Rivest is one of the inventors of the RSA algorithm (along with Adi Shamir and Len Adleman).[1] He is the inventor of the symmetric key encryption algorithms RC2, RC4, RC5, and co-inventor of RC6. The "RC" stands for "Rivest Cipher", or alternatively, "Ron's Code"
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Adi Shamir
Adi Shamir
Adi Shamir
(Hebrew: עדי שמיר‎; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer. He is a co-inventor of the RSA algorithm (along with Ron Rivest
Ron Rivest
and Len Adleman), a co-inventor of the Feige–Fiat–Shamir identification scheme (along with Uriel Feige and Amos Fiat), one of the inventors of differential cryptanalysis and has made numerous contributions to the fields of cryptography and computer science.Contents1 Education 2 Research 3 Awards 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEducation[edit] Born in Tel Aviv, Shamir received a BSc degree in mathematics from Tel Aviv University in 1973 and obtained his MSc and PhD degrees in Computer Science
Computer Science
from the Weizmann Institute
Weizmann Institute
in 1975 and 1977 respectively. His thesis was titled, "Fixed Points of Recursive Programs and their Relation in Differential Agard Calculus"
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Diffie–Hellman Key Exchange
Key
Key
may refer to:Contents1 Common meanings 2 Places 3 People3.1 Surnames4 Art, entertainment, and media4.1 Fictional characters 4.2 Fictional works5 Music5.1 Albums 5.2 Other uses6 Visual arts 7 Biology 8 Companies and organizations 9 Databases 10 Computing 11 Education 12 Sports 13 Other uses 14 See alsoCommon meanings[edit]Cay, also spelled key, a small, low-elevation, sandy island formed on the surface of a coral reef
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Steven M. Bellovin
Steven M. Bellovin
Steven M. Bellovin
is a researcher on computer networking and security. He is currently a Professor in the Computer Science department at Columbia University,[1] having previously been a Fellow at AT&T Labs Research in Florham Park, New Jersey.[2][3] In September 2012, Bellovin was appointed Chief Technologist for the United States Federal Trade Commission, replacing Edward W. Felten, who returned to Princeton University.[4] In February 2016, Bellovin became the first technology scholar for the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board
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All-or-nothing Transform
In cryptography, an all-or-nothing transform (AONT), also known as an all-or-nothing protocol, is an encryption mode which allows the data to be understood only if all of it is known. AONTs are not encryption, but frequently make use of symmetric ciphers and may be applied before encryption. In exact terms, "an AONT is an unkeyed, invertible, randomized transformation, with the property that it is hard to invert unless all of the output is known." [1]Contents1 Algorithms 2 Applications 3 References 4 External linksAlgorithms[edit] The original AONT, the package transform, was described by Ronald L. Rivest in All-Or-Nothing Encryption and The Package Transform.[2] Simply put, Rivest proposed encrypting each plaintext block with a random key to form the pseudomessage, then hashing each encrypted block and XORing all the hashes together with the random key to generate the last block of the pseudomessage
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Authentication
Authentication
Authentication
(from Greek: αὐθεντικός authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity. In contrast with identification, which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of actually confirming that identity. It might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate,[1] determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claim to be
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Computer Security
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from the theft and damage to their hardware, software or information, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. Cybersecurity includes controlling physical access to the hardware, as well as protecting against harm that may come via network access, data and code injection.[1] Also, due to malpractice by operators, whether intentional or accidental, IT security is susceptible to being tricked into deviating from secure procedures through various methods.[2] The field is of growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems and the Internet,[3] wireless networks such as Bluetooth
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Cryptanalysis
Cryptanalysis
Cryptanalysis
(from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.[1] Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages, even if the cryptographic key is unknown. In addition to mathematical analysis of cryptographic algorithms, cryptanalysis includes the study of side-channel attacks that do not target weaknesses in the cryptographic algorithms themselves, but instead exploit wea
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Secure Channel
In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering. A confidential channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing (i.e., reading the content), but not necessarily resistant to tampering. An authentic channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to tampering but not necessarily resistant to overhearing.Contents1 Secure channels in the real world 2 Future possibilities 3 Modeling a secure channel 4 See also 5 ReferencesSecure channels in the real world[edit] There are no perfectly secure channels in the real world
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Key Management
Key management
Key management
refers to management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem. This includes dealing with the generation, exchange, storage, use, crypto-shredding (destruction) and replacement of keys. It includes cryptographic protocol design, key servers, user procedures, and other relevant protocols.[1] Key management
Key management
concerns keys at the user level, either between users or systems. This is in contrast to key scheduling, which typically refers to the internal handling of keys within the operation of a cipher. Successful key management is critical to the security of a cryptosystem
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Cryptographic Protocol
A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods, often as sequences of cryptographic primitives. A protocol describes how the algorithms should be used. A sufficiently detailed protocol includes details about data structures and representations, at which point it can be used to implement multiple, interoperable versions of a program.[1] Cryptographic
Cryptographic
protocols are widely used for secure application-level data transport
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Opportunistic Encryption
Opportunistic encryption (OE) refers to any system that, when connecting to another system, attempts to encrypt the communications channel, otherwise falling back to unencrypted communications. This method requires no pre-arrangement between the two systems. Opportunistic encryption can be used to combat passive wiretapping.[1] (An active wiretapper, on the other hand, can disrupt encryption negotiation to either force an unencrypted channel or perform a man-in-the-middle attack on the encrypted link.) It does not provide a strong level of security as authentication may be difficult to establish and secure communications are not mandatory
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Key Agreement
In cryptography, a key-agreement protocol is a protocol whereby two or more parties can agree on a key in such a way that both influence the outcome. If properly done, this precludes undesired third parties from forcing a key choice on the agreeing parties. Protocols that are useful in practice also do not reveal to any eavesdropping party what key has been agreed upon. Many key exchange systems have one party generate the key, and simply send that key to the other party -- the other party has no influence on the key
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Man In The Middle Attack
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other. One example of man-in-the-middle attacks is active eavesdropping, in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them to make them believe they are talking directly to each other over a private connection, when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker. The attacker must be able to intercept all relevant messages passing between the two victims and inject new ones
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