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Interleukin 5
3VA2, 1HUL, 3QT2IdentifiersAliases IL5, EDF, IL-5, TRF, interleukin 5External IDs OMIM: 147850 MGI: 96557 HomoloGene: 679 GeneCards: IL5 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
5 (human)[1]Band 5q31.1 Start 1
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Protein Data Bank
The Protein
Protein
Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations (PDBe,[1] PDBj,[2] and RCSB[3]). The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein
Protein
Data Bank, wwPDB. The PDB is a key resource in areas of structural biology, such as structural genomics. Most major scientific journals, and some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB
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Sputum
Sputum
Sputum
/'spju.təm/ is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose. Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors (see below). Any hint of yellow color suggests an airway infection (but does not indicate between the types of organisms causing it). Such color hints are best detected when the sputum is viewed on a very white background such as white paper, a white pot, or a white sink surface
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Gene Nomenclature
Gene
Gene
nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms
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Gene
A gene is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Chromosome 11
Chromosome
Chromosome
11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. Humans normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome
Chromosome
11 spans about 135 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA
DNA
in cells. The shorter arm (p arm) is termed 11p while the longer arm (q arm) is 11q. At about 21.5 genes per megabase, chromosome 11 is one of the most gene-rich, and disease-rich, chromosomes in the human genome. More than 40% of the 856 olfactory receptor genes in the human genome are located in 28 single-gene and multi-gene clusters along the chromosome.Contents1 Gene1.1 Number of genes 1.2 Gene list2 Diseases and disorders 3 Cytogenetic band 4 References 5 External linksGene[edit] Number of genes[edit] The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 11
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Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry
(IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.[1] IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). Albert Coons
Albert Coons
conceptualized and first implemented the procedure in 1941.[2] Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors
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Transcription Factors
Transcription may refer to:Contents1 Linguistics 2 Genetics 3 Other uses 4 See alsoLinguistics[edit] Transcription (linguistics), the representations of speech or signing in written formOrthographic transcription, a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language Phonetic transcription, the representation of specific speech sounds or sign components Transcription (service), a business which converts speech into a written or electronic text document
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Allergic Rhinitis
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food.[10] Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions.[3] Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system
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Asthma
Asthma
Asthma
is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.[3] It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[10] Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week.[3] Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise.[3] Asthma
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Granulocytes
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.[1] They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN, PML, or PMNL) because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into three segments. This distinguishes them from the mononuclear agranulocytes. In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often refers specifically to "neutrophil granulocytes",[2] the most abundant of the granulocytes; the other types (eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells) have lower numbers
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Immunoglobulin
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region.[2][3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance
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Mammals
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Cytotoxic
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa).Contents1 Cell physiology 2 Measurement 3 Prediction 4 In cancer 5 Immune system 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCell physiology[edit] Treating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates. The cells may undergo necrosis, in which they lose membrane integrity and die rapidly as a result of cell lysis. The cells can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death (apoptosis). Cells undergoing necrosis typically exhibit rapid swelling, lose membrane integrity, shut down metabolism and release their contents into the environment
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Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hodgkin's lymphoma
(HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.[8] Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, and weight loss.[2] Often there will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin.[2] Those affected may feel tired or be itchy.[2] About half of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma
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Protein-protein Interaction
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect. Many are physical contacts with molecular associations between chains that occur in a cell or in a living organism in a specific biomolecular context.[1] Proteins
Proteins
rarely act alone as their functions tend to be regulated. Many molecular processes within a cell are carried out by molecular machines that are built from a large number of protein components organized by their PPIs
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