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Interleukin 5
3VA2, 1HUL, 3QT2 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES IL5, EDF, IL-5, TRF, interleukin 5 EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 147850 MGI: 96557 HomoloGene: 679 GeneCards: IL5 GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome
Chromosome
5 (human) BAND No data available START 132,541,444 bp END 132,556,838 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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Protein Data Bank
The PROTEIN DATA BANK (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids . The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography , NMR spectroscopy , or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy , and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations (PDBe, PDBj, and RCSB ). The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein
Protein
Data Bank , wwPDB. The PDB is a key resource in areas of structural biology , such as structural genomics . Most major scientific journals, and some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB
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Gene
A GENE is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression , the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA
RNA
. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits . These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes . Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Chromosome 11
CHROMOSOME 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans . Humans normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome
Chromosome
11 spans about 135 million base pairs (the building material of DNA
DNA
) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA
DNA
in cells . At 21.5 genes per megabase , Chromosome
Chromosome
11 is one of the most gene-rich, and disease-rich, chromosomes in the human genome . More than 40% of the 856 olfactory receptor genes in the human genome are located in 28 single-gene, and multi-gene, clusters along this chromosome. CONTENTS * 1 Genes * 2 Diseases and disorders * 3 Cytogenetic band * 4 References * 5 External links GENES See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 11 . The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 11
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Protein-protein Interaction
PROTEIN–PROTEIN INTERACTIONS (PPIS) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect . Many are physical contacts with molecular associations between chains that occur in a cell or in a living organism in a specific biomolecular context. Proteins
Proteins
rarely act alone as their functions tend to be regulated. Many molecular processes within a cell are carried out by molecular machines that are built from a large number of protein components organized by their PPIs. These interactions make up the so-called interactomics of the organism, while aberrant PPIs are the basis of multiple aggregation-related diseases, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob , Alzheimer\'s disease , and may lead to cancer
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Amino Acid
AMINO ACIDS are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups , along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , and nitrogen , although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code ) and can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity , pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic , acyclic , aromatic , containing hydroxyl or sulfur , etc.). In the form of proteins , amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues
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Hodgkin's Lymphoma
HODGKIN\'S LYMPHOMA (HL) is a type of lymphoma , which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind. Symptoms may include fever , night sweats , and weight loss . Often there will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin . Those affected may feel tired or be itchy. About half of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hodgkin's lymphoma
are due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Other risk factors include a family history of the condition and having HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
. There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma . Diagnosis is by finding Hodgkin's cells such as multinucleated Reed–Sternberg cells (RS cells) in lymph nodes. Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy , radiation therapy , and stem cell transplant
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Immunoglobulin
An ANTIBODY (AB), also known as an IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IG), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses . The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the harmful agent , called an antigen , via the Fab\'s variable region . Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance
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Ensembl Genome Database Project
ENSEMBL GENOME DATABASE PROJECT is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute
European Bioinformatics Institute
and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute , which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project
. After 10 years in existence, Ensembl's aim remains to provide a centralized resource for geneticists, molecular biologists and other researchers studying the genomes of our own species and other vertebrates and model organisms . Ensembl
Ensembl
is one of several well known genome browsers for the retrieval of genomic information. Similar databases and browsers are found at NCBI and the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Immunohistochemistry
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (e.g. proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues . IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry ). Albert Coons conceptualized and first implemented the procedure in 1941. Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors. Specific molecular markers are characteristic of particular cellular events such as proliferation or cell death (apoptosis ). Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry
is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue
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Mammals
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Cytotoxic
CYTOTOXICITY is the quality of being toxic to cells . Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom , e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa). CONTENTS * 1 Cell physiology * 2 Measurement * 3 Prediction * 4 In cancer * 5 Immune system * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links CELL PHYSIOLOGYTreating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates. The cells may undergo necrosis , in which they lose membrane integrity and die rapidly as a result of cell lysis . The cells can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death (apoptosis ). Cells undergoing necrosis typically exhibit rapid swelling, lose membrane integrity, shut down metabolism and release their contents into the environment
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Granulocytes
GRANULOCYTES are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm . They are also called POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES (PMN, PML, or PMNL) because of the varying shapes of the nucleus , which is usually lobed into three segments. This distinguishes them from the mononuclear agranulocytes . In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often refers specifically to "neutrophil granulocytes", the most abundant of the granulocytes; the other types (eosinophils , basophils , and mast cells ) have lower numbers. Granulocytes are produced via granulopoiesis in the bone marrow
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Sputum
SPUTUM /'spju.təm/ is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm ) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose. Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors (see below). Any hint of yellow color suggests an airway infection (but does not indicate between the types of organisms causing it). Such color hints are best detected when the sputum is viewed on a very white background such as white paper, a white pot, or a white sink surface. The more intense the yellow color, the more likely it is a bacterial infection (bronchitis , bronchopneumonia , or pneumonia )
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