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Interglacial
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age
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Holocene Climatic Optimum
The Holocene
Holocene
Climate Optimum (HCO) was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP. It has also been known by many other names, such as Hypsithermal, Altithermal, Climatic Optimum, Holocene
Holocene
Optimum, Holocene
Holocene
Thermal Maximum, and Holocene
Holocene
Megathermal. This warm period was followed by a gradual decline until about two millennia ago.For other temperature fluctuations, see temperature record. For other past climate fluctuation, see paleoclimatology. For the pollen zone and Blytt-Sernander period, associated with the climate optimum, see Atlantic (period).Contents1 Global effects 2 Comparison of ice cores 3 Milankovitch cycles 4 Other changes 5 See also 6 ReferencesGlobal effects[edit]Temperature variations during the Holocene
Holocene
from a collection of different reconstructions and their average
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Earth's Orbit
Earth's orbit
Earth's orbit
is the trajectory along which Earth
Earth
travels around the Sun
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Phanerozoic
The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon[3] is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present,[4] and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian, the first period of this eon
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Proterozoic
The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/[1][2]) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being".[3] The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals)
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Archean
The Archean
Archean
Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/, also spelled Archaean) is a geologic eon, 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents.Contents1 Etymology and changes in classification 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean2.1 Palaeoenvironment3 Geology 4 Early life in the Archean 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology and changes in classification[edit] Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Tundra
In physical geography, tundra (/ˈtʌndrə, ˈtʊn-/) is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра (tûndra) from the Kildin Sami word тӯндар (tūndâr) meaning "uplands", "treeless mountain tract".[1] There are three types of tundra: Arctic
Arctic
tundra,[2] alpine tundra,[2] and Antarctic tundra.[3] In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.Contents1 Arctic1.1 Relationship with global warming2 Antarctic 3 Alpine 4 Climatic classification 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksArctic Arctic
Arctic
tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt
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Inland Sea (geology)
An inland sea (also known as an epeiric sea or an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level that result in marine transgressions. In modern times, continents stand high, eustatic sea levels are low, and there are few inland seas, none larger than the Caspian Sea
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Orbital Eccentricity
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette
Klemperer rosette
orbit through the galaxy.Contents1 Definition 2 Etymology 3 Calculation 4 Examples 5 Mean eccentricity 6 Climatic effect 7 Exoplanets 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External linksDefinition[edit]e=0e=0.5Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e.In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit
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Cambrian Explosion
The Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion or Cambrian
Cambrian
radiation[1] was an event approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian
Cambrian
period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.[2][3] It lasted for about 20[4][5]–25[6][7] million years
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Obliquity
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.[1] It differs from orbital inclination. At an obliquity of zero, the two axes point in the same direction; i.e., the rotational axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Earth's obliquity oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees[2] on a 41,000-year cycle; the earth's mean obliquity is currently 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) and decreasing. Over the course of an orbit, the obliquity usually does not change considerably, and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background stars
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Axial Precession
In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis. In particular, it can refer to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of rotation in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years.[1] This is similar to the precession of a spinning-top, with the axis tracing out a pair of cones joined at their apices The term "precession" typically refers only to this largest part of the motion; other changes in the alignment of Earth's axis—nutation and polar motion—are much smaller in magnitude. Earth's precession was historically called the precession of the equinoxes, because the equinoxes moved westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the yearly motion of the Sun along the ecliptic
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Season
A season is a division of the year[1] marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight. Seasons result from Earth's orbit around the Sun
Sun
and Earth's axial tilt relative to the ecliptic plane.[2][3] In temperate and polar regions, the seasons are marked by changes in the intensity of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface, variations of which may cause animals to undergo hibernation or to migrate, and plants to be dormant.Red and green trees in autumn (fall)During May, June, and July, the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is exposed to more direct sunlight because the hemisphere faces the Sun. The same is true of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
in November, December, and January. It is Earth's axial tilt that causes the Sun
Sun
to be higher in the sky during the summer months, which increases the solar flux
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Hominid
The Hominidae
Hominidae
(/hɒˈmɪnɪdiː/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo
Homo
erectus.[1] Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. Its original meaning referred only to humans (Homo) and their closest extinct relatives. That restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans
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