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Interest
Interest
Interest
is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.[1] It is distinct from a fee which the borrower may pay the lender or some third party. It is also distinct from dividend which is paid by a company to its shareholders (owners) from its profit or reserve, but not at a particular rate decided beforehand, rather on a pro rata basis as a share in the reward gained by risk taking entrepreneurs when the revenue earned exceeds the total costs.[2][3] For example, a customer would usually pay interest to borrow from a bank, so they pay the bank an amount which is more than the amount they borrowed; or a customer may earn interest on their savings, and so they may withdraw more than they originally deposited
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Clergy
Clergy
Clergy
are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman, clergywoman and churchman. Less common terms are churchwoman, clergyperson and cleric. In Christianity
Christianity
the specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, elders, priests, bishops, preachers, pastors, ministers and the Pope
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Laws Of Eshnunna
The Laws of Eshnunna
Eshnunna
(abrv. LE) are inscribed on two cuneiform tablets discovered in Tell Abū Harmal, Baghdad, Iraq. The Iraqi Directorate of Antiquities headed by Taha Baqir
Taha Baqir
unearthed two parallel sets of tablets in 1945 and 1947. The two tablets are separate copies of an older source and date back to ca. 1930 BC. The differences between the Code of Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
and the Laws of Eshnunna
Eshnunna
significantly contributed to illuminating the development of ancient and cuneiform law. Eshnunna was north of Ur on the Tigris
Tigris
River and became politically important after the fall of the third dynasty of Ur, founded by Ur-Nammu. In distinction from the other Mesopotamian collections of law, this one got its name after the city where it had originated – Eshnunna, located on the bank of the Diyala River, tributary to the Tigris
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Dowry
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.[1] Dowry
Dowry
contrasts with the related concepts of bride price and dower. While bride price or bride service is a payment by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, dowry is the wealth transferred from the bride's family to the groom or his family, ostensibly for the bride. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, and which remains under her ownership and control.[2] Dowry
Dowry
is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected, and demanded as a condition to accept a marriage proposal, in some parts of the world, mainly in parts of Asia, Northern Africa
Northern Africa
and the Balkans
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First Council Of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea
Nicaea
(/naɪˈsiːə/; Greek: Νίκαια [ˈnikεa]) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea
Nicaea
(now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
in AD 325. Constantine I
Constantine I
organized the council along the lines of the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
and presided over it, but did not cast any official vote. This ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom
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Debtor
A debtor is an entity that owes a debt to another entity. The entity may be an individual, a firm, a government, a company or other legal person. The counterparty is called a creditor. When the counterpart of this debt arrangement is a bank, the debtor is more often referred to as a borrower. If X borrowed money from his/her bank, X is the debtor and the bank is the creditor. If X puts money in the bank, X is the creditor and the bank is the debtor. It is not a crime to fail to pay a debt. Except in certain bankruptcy situations, debtors can choose to pay debts in any priority they choose. But if one fails to pay a debt, they have broken a contract or agreement between them and a creditor. Generally, most oral and written agreements for the repayment of consumer debt - debts for personal, family or household purposes secured primarily by a person's residence - are enforceable. [1] For the most part, debts that are business related must be made in writing to be enforceable by law
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Ecumenical Council
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council)[1] is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.[2] The word "ecumenical" derives from the Late Latin oecumenicus "general, universal", from Greek oikoumenikos "from the whole world", from he oikoumene ge "the inhabited world (as known to the ancient Greeks); the Greeks and their neighbors considered as developed human society (as opposed to barbarian lands)", in later use "the Roman world" and in the Christian sense in ecclesiastical Greek, from oikoumenos, present passive participle of oikein "inhabit", from oikos "house, habitation."[3] The first seven
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Laity
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject. In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not members of the clergy, usually including any non-ordained members of religious institutes, e.g. a nun or lay brother.[1][2] In Christian
Christian
cultures, the term lay priest was sometimes used in the past to refer to a secular priest, a diocesan priest who is not a member of a religious institute.[citation needed] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses the term "Lay Priesthood" to emphasise that local congregational leaders are unpaid
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Heresy
Heresy
Heresy
(/ˈhɛrəsi/) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization
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Paul Johnson (writer)
Paul Bede Johnson CBE (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, popular historian, speechwriter, and author. While associated with the political left in his early career, he is now a conservative popular historian. Johnson was educated at the Jesuit
Jesuit
independent school Stonyhurst College, and at Magdalen College, Oxford. He first came to prominence in the 1950s as a journalist writing for and later editing the New Statesman magazine. A prolific writer, Johnson has written over 40 books and contributed to numerous magazines and newspapers
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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t ePart of a series onChristianityJesus Christ Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Son of God Virgin birth Ministry Crucifixion ResurrectionBible FoundationsOld Testament New Testament Gospel Canon Books Church Creed New CovenantTheologyGod TrinityFather Son Holy SpiritApologetics Baptism Christology History of theology Mission Patriology Pneumatology SalvationHistory TraditionMary Apostles Peter Paul Fathers Early Christianity Constantine Councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Luther Reformation Radical Refo
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Sebastian Brant
Sebastian Brant
Sebastian Brant
(also Brandt) (1457 – 10 May 1521) was a German humanist and satirist.[1] He is best known for his satire Das Narrenschiff (The Ship of Fools).[2]Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 References 4 Editions 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Brant was born in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
to an innkeeper but eventually entered the University of Basel
University of Basel
in 1475, initially studying philosophy and then transferring to the school of law. From 1484 he began teaching at the university and completed his doctorate in law in 1489. In 1485 he had married Elisabeth Bürg, the daughter of a cutler in the town. Elisabeth bore him seven children
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Narrenschiff
Ship of Fools (Modern German: Das Narrenschiff, Latin: Stultifera Navis, original medieval German title: Daß Narrenschyff ad Narragoniam) is a satirical allegory in German verse published in 1494 in Basel, Switzerland, by the humanist and theologian Sebastian Brant. It is the most famous treatment of the ship of fools trope and circulated in numerous translations. Overview[edit] The books consists of a prologue, 112 brief satires, and an epilogue, all illustrated with woodcuts.[1] Brant takes up the ship of fools trope, popular at the time, lashing with unsparing vigour the weaknesses and vices of his time
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Woodcut
Woodcut
Woodcut
is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print. The block is cut along the wood grain (unlike wood engraving, where the block is cut in the end-grain). The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller (brayer), leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks (using a different block for each color)
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Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
(/ˈdʊərər, ˈdjʊərər/;[1] German: [ˈalbʁɛçt ˈdyːʁɐ]; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)[2] was a painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties due to his high-quality woodcut prints. He was in communication with the major Italian artists of his time, including Raphael, Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
and Leonardo da Vinci, and from 1512 he was patronized by emperor Maximilian I. Dürer is commemorated by both the Lutheran and Episcopal Churches.The Expulsion From Paradise by Albrecht DürerDürer's vast body of work includes engravings, his preferred technique in his later prints, altarpieces, portraits and self-portraits, watercolours and books
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