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Intelsat V F-7
INTELSAT 507, previously named INTELSAT V F-7, was a communications satellite operated by Intelsat . Launched in 1983, it was the seventh of fifteen Intelsat V satellites to be launched. The Intelsat V series was constructed by Ford Aerospace , based on the Intelsat-V satellite bus . It was the first satellite of the Intelsat family not to be launched by the United States . Intelsat V F-67was part of an advanced series of satellites designed to provide greater telecommunications capacity for Intelsat 's global network. The satellite was deactivated in August 1996. The satellite was successfully launched into space on October 19, 1983, at 00:45 UTC, by means of an Ariane 1 vehicle from the Guiana Space Centre , Kourou , French Guiana . It had a launch mass of 1,928 kg
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy , an EPOCH is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body , because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time. These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane , the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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C Band (IEEE)
The C-BAND is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz); however, this definition is the one followed by radar manufacturers and users, not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users. The C-band (4 to 8 GHz
GHz
) is used for many satellite communications transmissions, some Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
devices, some cordless telephones , and some weather radar systems . The communications C-band was the first frequency band that was allocated for commercial telecommunications via satellites. The same frequencies were already in use for terrestrial microwave radio relay chains
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Orbital Period
The ORBITAL PERIOD is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun
Sun
, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars , or binary stars . For objects in the Solar System
Solar System
, this is often referred to as the SIDEREAL PERIOD, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky . When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the PERIOD. For example, Jupiter
Jupiter
has a sidereal period of 11.86 years while the main binary star Alpha Centauri AB has a period of about 79.91 years
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Orbital Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern. If the orbit swung between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, then its orbital inclination would be 20°. CONTENTS* 1 Orbits * 1.1 Natural and artificial satellites * 1.2 Exoplanets and multiple star systems * 2 Other meaning * 3 Calculation * 4 See also * 5 References ORBITSThe inclination is one of the six orbital elements describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit
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Apsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsɪdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-, or apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun
Sun
, the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrɪˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Kourou
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. KOUROU is a commune in French Guiana
French Guiana
, an overseas region and department of France
France
located in South America
South America
. In addition to being an administrative district in French Guiana, it is also the main town in that district. Within the Kourou
Kourou
district lies the Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
, France
France
and the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
's main spaceport
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Communications Satellite
A COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder ; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations. Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated points. Communications satellites use a wide range of radio and microwave frequencies
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Transponder
In telecommunication , a TRANSPONDER can be one of two types of devices. In air navigation or radio frequency identification, a flight transponder is an automated transceiver in an aircraft that emits a coded identifying signal in response to an interrogating received signal. In a communications satellite , a satellite transponder receives signals over a range of uplink frequencies usually from a satellite ground station , amplifies them, and re-transmits them on a different set of downlink frequencies to receivers on Earth, often without changing the content of the received signal or signals. The term is a portmanteau for TRANSmitter-resPONDER. It is variously abbreviated as XPDR, XPNDR, TPDR or TP
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Ku-Band
The KU BAND (pronunciation: /ˌkeɪˈjuː/ ) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under" (originally German : Kurz-unten), because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band , which was split into three bands (Ku, K , and Ka ) because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission. In radar applications, it ranges from 12-18 GHz according to the formal definition of radar frequency band nomenclature in IEEE Standard 521-2002
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French Guiana
FRENCH GUIANA (pronounced /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ or /ɡiːˈænə/ , French : Guyane française; French pronunciation: ​ ), officially called GUIANA (French : Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France
France
, located on the north Atlantic coast of South America
South America
in the Guyanas . It borders Brazil
Brazil
to the east and south, and Suriname
Suriname
to the west. Its 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi) area has a very low population density of only 3 inhabitants per km², with half of its 244,118 inhabitants in 2013 living in the metropolitan area of Cayenne
Cayenne
, its capital . By land area, it is the second largest region of France
France
and the largest outermost region within the European Union
European Union

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Semi-major Axis
In geometry , the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter : a line segment that runs through the center and both foci , with ends at the widest points of the perimeter . The SEMI-MAJOR AXIS is one half of the major axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus , and to the perimeter. For the special case of a circle, the semi-major axis is the radius . The length of the semi-major axis a {displaystyle a} of an ellipse is related to the semi-minor axis's length b {displaystyle b} through the eccentricity e {displaystyle e} and the semi-latus rectum {displaystyle ell } , as follows: b = a 1 e 2 , = a ( 1 e 2 ) , a = b 2 . {displaystyle {begin{aligned}b&=a{sqrt {1-e^{2}}},,\ell &=aleft(1-e^{2}right),,\aell width:17.358ex; height:10.176ex;" alt="{displaystyle {begin{aligned}b&=a{sqrt {1-e^{2}}},,\ell &=aleft(1-e^{2}right),,\aell "> {displaystyle ell } fixed
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Ku Band
The KU BAND (pronunciation: /ˌkeɪˈjuː/ ) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under" (originally German : Kurz-unten), because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band , which was split into three bands (Ku, K , and Ka ) because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission. In radar applications, it ranges from 12-18 GHz according to the formal definition of radar frequency band nomenclature in IEEE Standard 521-2002
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Spacebus
SPACEBUS is a satellite bus produced at the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center in France
France
by Thales Alenia Space . Spacebuses are typically used for geostationary communications satellites , and seventy-four have been launched since development started in the 1980s. Spacebus was originally produced by Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
and later passed to Alcatel Alenia Space . In 2006, it was sold to Thales Group
Thales Group
as Thales Alenia Space. The first Spacebus
Spacebus
satellite, Arabsat-1A , was launched in 1985. Since then, seventy-four have been launched, with one more completed, and six outstanding orders. The launch of the 50th Spacebus
Spacebus
satellite, Star One C1 , occurred in November 2007
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Satellite Bus
A SATELLITE BUS or SPACECRAFT BUS is the general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based. The bus is the infrastructure of a spacecraft, usually providing locations for the payload (typically space experiments or instruments). They are commonly used for geosynchronous satellites, particularly communications satellites , but are also used in spacecraft which occupy lower orbits, occasionally including low Earth orbit missions. A bus-derived satellite would be used as opposed to a one-off , or specially produced satellite, such as Prospero X-3 . Bus-derived satellites are usually customized to customer requirements , for example with specialized sensors or transponders , in order to achieve a specific mission
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