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Intel 8008
The Intel
Intel
8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972. It is an 8-bit CPU with an external 1 4-bit
4-bit
address bus that could address 16 KB of memory. Originally known as the 1201, the chip was commissioned by Computer
Computer
Terminal Corporation (CTC) to implement an instruction set of their design for their Datapoint 2200
Datapoint 2200
programmable terminal. As the chip was delayed and did not meet CTC's performance goals, the 2200 ended up using CTC's own TTL-based CPU instead
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Central Processing Unit
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O
I/O
circuitry.[2] The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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PDP-11
The PDP-11
PDP-11
is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series. In total, around 600,000 PDP-11s of all models were sold, making it one of DEC's most successful product lines. The PDP-11
PDP-11
is considered by some experts[1][2][3] to be the most popular minicomputer ever. The PDP-11
PDP-11
included a number of innovative features in its instruction set and additional general-purpose registers that made it much easier to program than earlier models in the series. Additionally, the innovative Unibus
Unibus
system allowed external devices to be easily interfaced to the system using direct memory access, opening the system to a wide variety of peripherals
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Punched Card
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions
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Clock Rate
The clock speed typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed. It is measured in clock cycles per second or its equivalent, the SI unit hertz (Hz), the clock rate of the first generation of computers was measured in hertz or kilohertz (kHz), but in the 21st century the speed of modern CPUs is commonly advertised in gigahertz (GHz)
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Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Incorporated (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.[4] Its headquarters are in Dallas, Texas, United States. TI is one of the top-10 semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume.[5] Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which account for more than 80% of their revenue.[6] TI also produces TI digital light processing technology and education technology[6] products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors
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General Mills
General Mills, Inc., is an American multinational manufacturer and marketer of branded consumer foods sold through retail stores. It is headquartered in Golden Valley, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. The company markets many well-known North American brands, including Gold Medal flour, Annie's Homegrown, Betty Crocker, Yoplait, Colombo, Totino's, Pillsbury, Old El Paso, Häagen-Dazs, Cheerios, Trix, Cocoa Puffs, and Lucky Charms. Its brand portfolio includes more than 89 other leading U.S
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California State University, Sacramento
California
California
State University, Sacramento
Sacramento
(CSUS; Sacramento
Sacramento
State, informally Sac State), founded in 1947 as Sacramento
Sacramento
State College, is a public comprehensive university in the city of Sacramento, the capital city of the U.S. state of California. It is the eleventh oldest school in the 23-campus California
California
State University
State University
system. The university enrolls approximately 30,500 students annually, has an alumni base of 215,000[7] and awards 7,000 degrees annually
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IBM Basic Assembly Language
Basic Assembly Language (BAL) is the commonly used term for a low-level programming language used on IBM System/360
IBM System/360
and successor mainframes. Originally "Basic Assembly Language" applied only to an extremely restricted dialect designed to run under control of IBM Basic Programming Support (BPS/360) on systems with only 8 KB of main memory, and only a card reader, a card punch, and a printer for input/output — thus the word "Basic". However, the full name and the initialism "BAL" almost immediately attached themselves in popular use to all assembly-language dialects on the System/360
System/360
and its descendants
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Tektronix
Tektronix, Inc., historically widely known as "Tek", is an American company best known for manufacturing test and measurement devices such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and video and mobile test protocol equipment. Originally an independent company, it is now a subsidiary of Fortive, a spinoff from Danaher Corporation. Several charities are, or were, associated with Tektronix, including the Tektronix
Tektronix
Foundation and the M.J. Murdock Charitable Trust in Vancouver, Washington.Contents1 History1.1 1946–1954 1.2 1955–1969 1.3 1970–1985 1.4 1986–2006 1.5 2007 to present2 Early oscilloscope models 3 'Non test' products 4 Notable employees 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] 1946–1954[edit]Advertisement from an engineering magazine touting the features of the Tektronix
Tektronix
511
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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Parity Flag
In computer processors the parity flag indicates if the number of set bits is odd or even in the binary representation of the result of the last operation. It is normally a single bit in a processor status register. For example, assume a machine where a set parity flag indicates even parity. If the result of the last operation were 26 (11010 in binary), the parity flag would be 0 since the number of set bits is odd. Similarly, if the result were 10 (1010 in binary) then the parity flag would be 1. x86 processors[edit] In x86 processors, the parity flag reflects the parity only of the least significant byte of the result, and is set if the number of set bits of ones is even (put another way, the parity bit is set if the sum of the bits is even)
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IBM Selectric
The IBM
IBM
Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM
IBM
on 31 July 1961.[1][2] Instead of the "basket" of individual typebars that swung up to strike the ribbon and page in a typical typewriter of the period, the Selectric had a "typing element" (frequently called a "typeball", or more informally, a "golf ball") that rotated and pivoted to the correct position before striking. The element could be easily changed so as to use different fonts in the same document typed on the same typewriter, resurrecting a capability that had been pioneered by typewriters such as the Hammond and Blickensderfer in the late 19th century
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Zero Flag
The zero flag is a single bit flag that is a central feature on most conventional CPU
CPU
architectures (including x86, ARM, PDP-11, 68000, 6502, and numerous others). It is often stored in a dedicated register, typically called status register or flag register, along with other flags. The zero flag is typically abbreviated Z or ZF or similar in most documentation and assembly languages. Along with a carry flag, a sign flag and an overflow flag, the zero flag is used to check the result of an arithmetic operation, including bitwise logical instructions. It is set if an arithmetic result is zero, and reset otherwise. This includes results which are not stored, as most traditional instruction sets implement the compare instruction as a subtract where the result is discarded
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Sign Flag
In a computer processor the negative flag or sign flag is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate whether the result of the last mathematical operation resulted in a value in which the most significant bit was set
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Micrometre
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures;[1] SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 6994100000000000000♠1×10−6 metre (SI standard prefix "micro-" = 10−6); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch).[1] The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria,[1] and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.[2] The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm
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