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Integra-Signum
INTEGRA-SIGNUM is a Swiss train protection system introduced in 1933. Originally it was called Signum; the name Integra was added later. It transmits data inductively and is simple, robust and reliable also in snow. HOW IT WORKSThe locomotives have three sending and receiving magnets and there are two trackside magnets near the signals . Integra-Signum
Integra-Signum
asks the train driver to confirm distant signals that show stop and distant or home signals that show caution. If he does not confirm or passes a home signal that shows stop, the train is stopped automatically. This is achieved by interrupting the power supply to the motors and applying the emergency brake. The locomotive's sending magnet is a strong permanent magnet, which induces a current in the receiving magnet in the middle of the track, if the signal's short-circuit contact is closed
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SBB-CFF-FFS RBe 540
Starting in 1959, the SBB-CFF-FFS put motored coaches of the type RBE 540 (old designation RBE 4/4) into service for push-pull operation on the Gotthard line . As a consequence, they had much power at their disposal, even more than the Re 4/4 I locomotives, a regenerative brake , cabs on both ends with doors to passenger carriages as well as multiple-unit train control (SBB Vst III), which is compatible with the Bt and NPZ control cars , as well as the locomotives of the Re 420 series (Re 4/4II = Re 420, Re 421, Re 4/4III), Re 4/4 IV and Re 620 . They originally had 64 seats, 32 smoking and 32 non-smoking, and were painted in ordinary SBB-CFF-FFS green. The first six prototypes, each costing six million francs, were delivered 1959 and 1960, and first shown to the press at 24 May 1959. The prototypes had some issues which were fixed until the series production
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Gland, Switzerland
GLAND is a municipality in the district of Nyon
Nyon
in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland
Switzerland
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
* 4 Demographics * 5 Heritage sites of national significance * 6 Politics * 7 Economy * 8 Religion * 9 Education * 10 Sport * 11 Notable residents * 12 References * 13 External links HISTORYGland is known to have been a prehistoric settlement. During the Roman period a farm called Villa Glanis was there. Until the 1960s, Gland was merely a small farming village (essentially vineyards and cattle ). Gland is first mentioned around 994 -1049 as de Glans
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Track Warrant
TRACK WARRANTS are systematized permissions used on some railroad lines to authorize a train 's use of the main line. Dispatchers issue these permissions to train crews instead of using signals . The crews receive track warrants by radio , phone , or electronic transmission from a dispatcher. CONTENTS* 1 Operation * 1.1 Comparison with Direct Traffic Control * 2 Standard instructions used in track warrants * 3 Use of track warrants on specific railroads * 4 See also * 5 References OPERATIONTrack warrants are issued granting main track use between two named points (i.e. milepost sign, station , and/or any fixed physical point, such as a switch )
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ALSN
ALSN
ALSN
is a train control system meaning Continuous Automatic Train Signalling used widely on the main lines of the ex-Soviet states (Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia). It uses modulated pulses inducted into rails similar to the Italian RS4 Codici and American Pulse Code Cab Signaling . On high-speed lines the variant ALS-EN (АЛС-ЕН) is used which takes advantage of a double phase difference modulation of the carrier wave . The name ALSN
ALSN
(АЛСН - автоматическая локомотивная сигнализация непрерывного действия) is composed of ALS, literally "Automatic Locomotive Signalling" (АЛС - автоматическая локомотивная сигнализация) and the variant designation N "Continuous Effect" (Н - Непрерывного действия)
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Electromagnetic Induction
ELECTROMAGNETIC or MAGNETIC INDUCTION is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field . Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
mathematically described it as Faraday\'s law of induction . Lenz\'s law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday's law was later generalized to become the Maxwell-Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell\'s equations in James Clerk Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. Electromagnetic induction
Electromagnetic induction
has found many applications in technology, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers , and devices such as electric motors and generators
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Magnet
A MAGNET is a material or object that produces a magnetic field . This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials , such as iron , and attracts or repels other magnets. A PERMANENT MAGNET is an object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. An everyday example is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. Materials that can be magnetized, which are also the ones that are strongly attracted to a magnet, are called ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic ). These include iron , nickel , cobalt , some alloys of rare-earth metals , and some naturally occurring minerals such as lodestone
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Track Circuit
A TRACK CIRCUIT is a simple electrical device used to detect the absence of a train on rail tracks , used to inform signallers and control relevant signals
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Treadle (railway)
In railway signalling , a TREADLE is a mechanical or electrical device that detects that a train axle has passed a particular location. They are used where a track circuit requires re-inforcing with additional information about a train's location, such as around an automatic level crossing , or in an annunciator circuit, that sounds a warning a train has passed an exact point. The important difference between a treadle and a track circuit is that while a track circuit detects a train over a distance as long as several kilometres, a treadle provides pin-point detection
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Axle Counter
An AXLE COUNTER is a device on a railway that detects the passing of a train between two points on a track. A counting head (or 'detection point') is installed at each end of the section, and as each train axle passes the counting head at the start of the section, a counter increments. A detection point comprises two independent sensors, therefore the device can detect the direction and speed of a train by the order and time in which the sensors are passed. As the train passes a similar counting head at the end of the section, the counter compares count at the end of the section with that recorded at the beginning. If the two counts are the same, the section is presumed to be clear for a second train. This is carried out by safety critical computers called 'evaluators' which are centrally located, with the detection points located at the required sites in the field
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Track Circuit Interrupter
A TRACK CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER may be fitted at catch points, trap points or buffer stops to maintain a track circuit in the 'occupied' state in the event of a derailment. The track circuit remains de-energised until the interrupter is replaced. CONTENTS* 1 Application * 1.1 At catch or trap points * 1.2 At buffer stops * 2 Insulated and non-insulated interrupters * 3 Provision of Overlaps, Flank Protection and Trapping * 4 Diagram * 5 Accidents * 5.1 Melton Mowbray * 6 Treadles * 7 References APPLICATIONAT CATCH OR TRAP POINTSTrap points or catch points are designed to intentionally derail vehicles making an unauthorised movement. When a vehicle derails completely, its wheels cease to shunt the track circuit. Since the vehicle might still be foul of the track, it is important to maintain the track circuit in the 'occupied' state
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Cab Signalling
CAB SIGNALLING is a railway safety system that communicates track status and condition information to the cab, crew compartment or driver\'s compartment of a locomotive , railcar or multiple unit . The information is continually updated giving an easy to read display to the train driver or engine driver . The simplest systems display the trackside signal, while more sophisticated systems also display allowable speed, location of nearby trains, and dynamic information about the track ahead. Cab signals can also be part of a more comprehensive train protection system that can automatically apply the brakes stopping the train if the operator does not respond appropriately to a dangerous condition
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Westlock Interlocking
WESTLOCK INTERLOCKING is a Solid State Interlocking (SSI) product by Westinghouse Rail Systems . Westlock builds on many of the features that made SSI popular in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. This includes re-use of SSI's programming language and its external hardware. In addition to backwards compatibility with SSI, Westlock provides additional capacity. This is currently estimated to be around four times that of an SSI, giving it the capability to control over 300 Signalling Equivalent Units (SEUs). Leamington Spa was the test site for Westlock, and was its first operational site. It was also SSI's test site more than 20 years earlier
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Application Of Railway Signals
The APPLICATION OF RAILWAY SIGNALS on a rail layout is determined by various factors, principally the location of points of potential conflict, as well as the speed and frequency of trains and the movements they require to make
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Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System
ADVANCED CIVIL SPEED ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM (ACSES) is a positive train control cab signaling system developed by Alstom . The system is designed to prevent train -to-train collisions , protect against overspeed and protect work crews with temporary speed restrictions. The information about permanent and temporary speed restrictions is transmitted to the train by transponders lying in the track , coded track circuits and digital radio . It is installed on all of Amtrak 's Northeast Corridor between Washington and Boston , going fully active in December 2015, a few months after the 2015 Philadelphia train derailment which it would have prevented
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North American Railroad Signals
NORTH AMERICAN RAILROAD SIGNALS generally fall into the category of multi-headed electrically lit units displaying speed-based or weak route signaling. Signals may be of the SEARCHLIGHT, COLOR LIGHT, POSITION LIGHT, or COLOR POSITION LIGHT types, each displaying a variety of aspects which inform the locomotive engineer of track conditions so that he or she may keep their train under control and able to stop short of any obstruction or dangerous condition. There is no national standard or system for railroad signaling in North America. Individual railroad corporations are free to devise their own signaling systems as long as they uphold some basic regulated safety requirements. Due to the wave of mergers that have occurred since the 1960s it is not uncommon to see a single railroad operating many different types of signaling inherited from predecessor railroads. This variety can range from simple differences of hardware to completely different rules and aspects
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