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Institutions
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".[1] As structures or mechanisms of social order, they govern the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community. Institutions are identified with a social purpose, transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern living behavior.[2] The term "institution" commonly applies to both informal institutions such as customs, or behavior patterns important to a society, and to particular formal institutions created by entities such as the government and public services
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Formal Organization
Formal organization is one with a fixed set of rules of intra-organization procedures and structures. As such, it is usually set out in writing, with a language of rules that ostensibly leave little discretion for interpretation. In some societies and in some organizations, such rules may be strictly followed; in others, they may be little more than an empty formalism.To facilitate the accomplishment of the goals of the organization: In a formal organization, the work is delegated to each individual of the organization. He/She works towards the attainment of definite goals, which are in compliance with the goals of the organization. To facilitate the co-ordination of various activities: The authority, responsibility, and accountability of individuals in the organization is very well defined
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Industrial Sociology
Industrial sociology, until recently a crucial research area within the field of sociology of work, examines "the direction and implications of trends in technological change, globalization, labour markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations to the extent to which these trends are intimately related to changing patterns of inequality in modern societies and to the changing experiences of individuals and families the ways in which workers challenge, resist and make their own contributions to the patterning of work and shaping of work institutions."[1] Labor process theory[edit] One branch of industrial sociology is Labor process theory (LPT). In 1974, Harry Braverman wrote Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, which provided a critical analysis of scientific management
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Social Constructionism
Social constructionism
Social constructionism
or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality
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Development Theory
Development theory
Development theory
is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories
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Demography
Demography
Demography
(from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement"[1]) is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics). Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging, and death. Based on the demographic research of the earth, earth's population up to the year 2050 and 2100 can be estimated by demographers
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Sociology Of Education
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes
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Economic Sociology
Economic sociology
Economic sociology
is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena. The field can be broadly divided into a classical period and a contemporary one, known as "New economic sociology". The classical period was concerned particularly with modernity and its constituent aspects which are rationalisation, secularisation, urbanisation, social stratification, and so on. As sociology arose primarily as a reaction to capitalist modernity, economics played a role in much classic sociological inquiry
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Sociology Of The Family
Sociological studies of the family look at:demographic characteristics of the family members: family size, age, ethnicity, and gender of the members social class of the family, the economic level and mobility of the family, the professions of its members, the education levels of the family members what spheres of life are important in and to the family unit the effect of social change on the family the interactions of the family with other social organizations. diversity of family forms in contemporary societies in relation to ideology, gender differences, and state policies such as those concerned with marriage interaction between family members within the family. How they rely on one another. How they work together/rely on the work of someone in the family.Examples of specific issues looked at include:Changing roles of family members. Each member is restricted by the sex roles of the traditional family
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Feminist Sociology
Feminist
Feminist
sociology is a conflict theory and theoretical perspective which observes gender in its relation to power, both at the level of face-to-face interaction and reflexivity within a social structure at large. Focuses include sexual orientation, race, economic status, and nationality. At the core of feminist sociology is the idea of the systematic oppression[note 1] of women and the historical dominance of men within most societies: 'patriarchy'. Feminist
Feminist
thought has a rich history, however, which may be categorized into three 'waves'. The current, 'third wave', emphasizes the concepts of globalization, postcolonialism, post-structuralism and postmodernism
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Sociology Of Health And Illness
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health. The objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa.[1] This aspect of sociology differs from medical sociology in that this branch of sociology discusses health and illness in relation to social institutions such as family, employment, and school. The sociology of medicine limits its concern to the patient-practitioner relationship and the role of health professionals in society.[2] The sociology of health and illness covers sociological pathology (causes of disease and illness), reasons for seeking particular types of medical aid, and patient compliance or noncompliance with medical regimes.[2] Health, or lack of health, was once merely attributed to biological or natural conditions
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Social Inequality
Social inequality
Social inequality
occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It is the differentiation preference of access of social goods in the society brought about by power, religion, kinship, prestige, race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and class. The social rights include labor market, the source of income, health care, and freedom of speech, education, political representation, and participation.[1] Social inequality
Social inequality
linked to Economic inequality, usually described on the basis of the unequal distribution of income or wealth, is a frequently studied type of social inequality
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Social Conflict
Social conflict
Social conflict
is the struggle for agency or power in society. Social conflict or group conflict occurs when two or more actors oppose each other in social interaction, reciprocally exerting social power in an effort to attain scarce or incompatible goals and prevent the opponent from attaining them. It is a social relationship wherein the action is oriented intentionally for carrying out the actor's own will against the resistance of other party or parties.[1]Contents1 Conflict theory 2 Karl Marx 3 Stratification 4 Systems of stratification 5 Conflict interests 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksConflict theory[edit] Main article: Conflict theories Conflict theory emphasizes interests, rather than norms and values, in conflict. The pursuit of interests generates various types of conflict. Thus conflict is seen as a normal aspect of social life rather than an abnormal occurrence
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Sociology Of Law
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.[1] Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field of sociology[2] whilst others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology.[3] Still others regard it neither as a sub-discipline of sociology nor as a branch of legal studies but as a field of research on its own right within the broader social science tradition
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Sociology Of Literature
The sociology of literature is a subfield of the sociology of culture. It studies the social production of literature and its social implications. A notable example is Pierre Bourdieu's 1992 Les Règles de L'Art: Genèse et Structure du Champ Littéraire, translated by Susan Emanuel as Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field (1996).Contents1 Classical sociology 2 Lukács and the theory of the novel 3 The Frankfurt School 4 The sociology of the avant-garde 5 The sociology of the book trade 6 Genetic structuralism 7 Sociocriticism 8 Neo-Marxian ideology critique 9 Bourdieu 10 The rise of the novel 11 Cultural materialism 12 World-systems theory 13 Recent developments 14 Notes 15 ReferencesClassical sociology[edit] None of the 'founding fathers' of sociology produced a detailed study of literature, but they did develop ideas that were subsequently applied to literature by others
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Organizational Theory
Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational analysis. Organizations are defined as social units of people that are structured and managed to meet a need, or to pursue collective goals. Theories of organizations include rational system perspective, division of labor, bureaucratic theory, and contingency theory. In a rational organization system, there are two significant parts: Specificity of Goals and Formalization. The division of labor is the specialization of individual labor roles, associated with increasing output and trade. Modernization theorist Frank Dobbin states "modern institutions are transparently purposive and that we are in the midst an evolutionary progression towards more efficient forms". Max Weber's conception of bureaucracy is characterized by the presence of impersonal positions that are earned and not inherited, rule-governed decision-making, professionalism, chain of command, defined responsibility, and bounded authority
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