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Information Technology
Information
Information
technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data,[1] or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.[2] IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
developed writing in about 3000 BC,[3] but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name
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Antikythera Mechanism
The Antikythera
Antikythera
mechanism (/ˌæntɪkɪˈθiːrə/ ANT-i-ki-THEER-ə or /ˌæntɪˈkɪθərə/ ANT-i-KITH-ə-rə) is an ancient Greek analog computer[1][2][3][4] and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.[5][6][7] It could also track the four-year cycle of athletic games which was similar to an Olympiad, the cycle of the ancient Olympic Games.[8][9][10] The device was found housed in the remains of a 340-millimetre (13 in) × 180-millimetre (7.1 in) × 90-millimetre (3.5 in) wooden box. It is a complex clockwork mechanism composed of at least 30 meshing bronze gears. A team led by Mike Edmunds and Tony Freeth at Cardiff University used modern computer x-ray tomography and high resolution surface scanning to image inside fragments of the crust-encased mechanism and read the faintest inscriptions that once covered the outer casing of the machine
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Harold Leavitt
Harold J. Leavitt (1922 – 2007) was an American psychologist of management. He dealt with the analysis of patterns of interaction and communication in groups, and also interferences in communication. He examined the personality characteristics of leaders. He distinguished three types of managers:The visionary and charismatic leader is characterized by being original, witty, and uncompromising. He is often eccentric and seeks to break with status quo, and embarking on a new path. Historical examples of such leaders were Gandhi, Hitler, Gladstone and the Ayatollah Khomeini.[citation needed] The rational and analyzing leader' are holding to the facts supported by numbers. He is systematic and can effectively control. Examples of this type are Clement Attlee, Robert Peel, or Jimmy Carter.[citation needed] The pragmatist – The contractor of established plans, skillfully solving problems
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Intellectual Freedom
Intellectual freedom encompasses the freedom to hold, receive and disseminate ideas without restriction.[1] Viewed as an integral component of a democratic society, intellectual freedom protects an individual's right to access, explore, consider, and express ideas and information as the basis for a self-governing, well-informed citizenry
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Intellectual Property
Intellectual property
Intellectual property
(or "IP") is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks. It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.[1][2] Intellectual property
Intellectual property
law has evolved over centuries. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.[3] The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods
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Privacy
Privacy
Privacy
is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share common themes. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special or sensitive to them. The domain of privacy partially overlaps security (confidentiality), which can include the concepts of appropriate use, as well as protection of information. Privacy
Privacy
may also take the form of bodily integrity.[1] The right not to be subjected to unsanctioned invasion of privacy by the government, corporations or individuals is part of many countries' privacy laws, and in some cases, constitutions. Almost all countries have laws which in some way limit privacy
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Data (computing)
Data
Data
(/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DAT-ə, /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə;[1] treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation. Data
Data
(or datum – a single unit of data) requires interpretation to become information. To translate data to information, there must be several known factors considered. The factors involved are determined by the creator of the data and the desired information. The term metadata is used to reference the data about the data. Metadata
Metadata
may be implied, specified or given. Data
Data
relating to physical events or processes will also have a temporal component. In almost all cases this temporal component is implied
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Sumer
Sumer
Sumer
(/ˈsuːmər/)[note 1] is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Early Bronze
Bronze
ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and the Indus Valley.[1] Living along the valleys of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing
Proto-writing
in the prehistory dates back to c. 3000 BC
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script,[a] one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.[3] It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped".[4][5] Emerging in Sumer
Sumer
in the late fourth millennium BC (the Uruk
Uruk
IV period) to convey the Sumerian language, which was a language isolate , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms, stemming from an earlier system of shaped tokens used for accounting. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller (Hittite cuneiform)
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Statistical
Statistics
Statistics
is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.[1][2] In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics
Statistics
deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[1] See glossary of probability and statistics. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole
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Cultural Studies
Cultural studies (also cultural theory)[1] is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.[2] Cultural studies researchers generally investigate how cultural practices relate to wider systems of power associated with or operating through social phenomena, such as ideology, class structures, national formations, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, and generation. Cultural studies views cultures not as fixed, bounded, stable, and discrete entities, but rather as constantly interacting and changing sets of practices and processes.[3] The field of cultural studies encompasses a range of theoretical and methodological perspectives and practices
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Decision-making
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. Decision-making
Decision-making
is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker.Contents1 Overview 2 Problem analysis2.1 Analysis paralysis 2.2 Information overload 2.3 Post-decision analysis3 Decision-making
Decision-making
techniques3.1 Group 3.2 Individual4 Steps4.1 GOFER 4.2 DECIDE 4.3 Other 4.4 Group stages5 Rational and irrational 6 Cognitive and personal biases 7 Cognitive limitations in groups 8 Cognitive styles8.1 Optimizing
Optimizing
vs. satisficing 8.2 Intuitive vs. rational 8.3 Combinatorial vs
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Telecommunications Equipment
Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is hardware used for the purposes of telecommunications
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Electromechanical
In engineering, electromechanics[1][2][3][4] combines electrical and mechanical processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
in this context also encompasses electronic engineering. Devices which carry out electrical operations by using moving parts are known as electromechanical. Strictly speaking, a manually operated switch is an electromechanical component, but the term is usually understood to refer to devices which involve an electrical signal to create mechanical movement, or mechanical movement to create an electric signal. Often involving electromagnetic principles such as in relays, which allow a voltage or current to control other, usually isolated circuit voltage or current by mechanically switching sets of contacts, and solenoids, by which a voltage can actuate a moving linkage as in solenoid valves
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Deutsches Museum
The Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
(German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science and technology, with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology.[1] It receives about 1.5 million visitors per year. The museum was founded on 28 June 1903, at a meeting of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) as an initiative of Oskar von Miller. Its official name is Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik (English: German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology). It is the largest museum in Munich
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