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Information Technology
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) is the application of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data , or information , often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications". The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware , software , electronics , semiconductors , internet , telecom equipment , and e-commerce
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Privacy
PRIVACY is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share common themes. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special or sensitive to them. The domain of privacy partially overlaps security (confidentiality), which can include the concepts of appropriate use, as well as protection of information. Privacy
Privacy
may also take the form of bodily integrity . The right not to be subjected to unsanctioned invasion of privacy by the government , corporations or individuals is part of many countries' privacy laws , and in some cases, constitutions . Almost all countries have laws which in some way limit privacy
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Data (computing)
DATA (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə , or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə ; treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun ) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation. DATA (or datum – a single unit of data) requires interpretation to become information. To translate data to information, there must be several known factors considered. The factors involved are determined by the creator of the data and the desired information. The term metadata is used to reference the data about the data. Metadata may be implied, specified or given. Data relating to physical events or processes will also have a temporal component. In almost all cases this temporal component is implied. This is the case when a device such as a temperature logger received data from a temperature sensor . When the temperature is received it is assumed that the data has a temporal references of "now"
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. For example, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are typically synonymous in one particular sense : for example, long and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . The former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms
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Intellectual Property
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (or "IP") is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights , patents , and trademarks . It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets , publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property. Intellectual property
Intellectual property
law has evolved over centuries. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a wide variety of intellectual goods
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Intellectual Freedom
INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM encompasses the freedom to hold, receive and disseminate ideas without restriction. Viewed as an integral component of a democratic society, intellectual freedom protects an individual's right to access, explore, consider, and express ideas and information as the basis for a self-governing, well-informed citizenry. Intellectual freedom comprises the bedrock for freedoms of expression, speech, and the press and relates to freedoms of information and privacy. The United Nations
United Nations
upholds intellectual freedom as a basic human right through Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which asserts: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
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Computer Data Storage
COMPUTER DATA STORAGE, often called STORAGE or MEMORY, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data . It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. :15-16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy , :468-473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage"; however, "memory" is sometimes also used when referring to persistent storage
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Cultural Studies
CULTURAL STUDIES is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies. Cultural studies researchers generally investigate how cultural practices relate to wider systems of power associated with or operating through social phenomena, such as ideology , class structures , national formations , ethnicity , sexual orientation , gender , and generation. Cultural studies views cultures not as fixed, bounded, stable, and discrete entities, but rather as constantly interacting and changing sets of practices and processes. The field of cultural studies encompasses a range of theoretical and methodological perspectives and practices. Although distinct from the disciplines of cultural anthropology and ethnic studies , cultural studies draws upon and has contributed to each of these disciplines
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Data Modeling
DATA MODELING in software engineering is the process of creating a data model for an information system by applying certain formal techniques. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Data
Data
modeling topics * 2.1 Data
Data
models * 2.2 Conceptual, logical and physical schemas * 2.3 Data
Data
modeling process * 2.4 Modeling methodologies * 2.5 Entity relationship diagrams * 2.6 Generic data modeling * 2.7 Semantic data modeling * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links OVERVIEW Data
Data
modeling is a process used to define and analyze data requirements needed to support the business processes within the scope of corresponding information systems in organizations. Therefore, the process of data modeling involves professional data modelers working closely with business stakeholders, as well as potential users of the information system
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Semiconductors
A SEMICONDUCTOR material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor , such as copper, and an insulator , such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping ") into the crystal structure . Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons , ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes , transistors and all modern electronics. Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat
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Internet
The INTERNET is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet
Internet
carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(WWW), electronic mail , telephony , and file sharing . The origins of the Internet
Internet
date back to research commissioned by the United States Federal Government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks
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Harold Leavitt
HAROLD J. LEAVITT (1922 – 2007) was an American psychologist of management. He dealt with the analysis of patterns of interaction and communication in groups, and also interferences in communication. He examined the personality characteristics of leaders. He distinguished three types of managers: * The visionary and charismatic leader is characterized by being original, witty, and uncompromising. He is often eccentric and seeks to break with status quo, and embarking on a new path. Historical examples of such leaders were Gandhi
Gandhi
, Hitler
Hitler
, Gladstone and the Ayatollah Khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini
. * The rational and analyzing leader' are holding to the facts supported by numbers
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Storage (memory)
Memory
Memory
is the ability of the mind to store and recall information that was previously acquired. Memory
Memory
is processed through three fundamental processing stages: STORAGE, encoding , and retrieval . Storing refers to the process of placing newly acquired information into memory, which is modified in the brain for easier storage. Encoding this information makes the process of retrieval easier for the brain where it can be recalled and brought into conscious thinking. Modern memory psychology differentiates between the two distinct types of memory storage: short-term memory and long-term memory . In addition, different memory models have suggested variations of existing short- and long-term memory to account for different ways of storing memory
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Electromechanical
In engineering , ELECTROMECHANICS combines electrical and mechanical processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering . Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
in this context also encompasses electronics engineering . Devices which carry out electrical operations by using moving parts are known as electromechanical. Strictly speaking, a manually operated switch is an electromechanical component, but the term is usually understood to refer to devices which involve an electrical signal to create mechanical movement, or mechanical movement to create an electric signal. Often involving electromagnetic principles such as in relays , which allow a voltage or current to control other, usually isolated circuit voltage or current by mechanically switching sets of contacts, and solenoids , by which a voltage can actuate a moving linkage as in solenoid valves
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Cuneiform
CUNEIFORM SCRIPT (/kjuːˈniːᵻfɔːrm/ kew-NEE-i-form or /kjuːˈneɪᵻfɔːrm/ kew-NAY-i-form or /ˈkjuːnᵻfɔːrm/ KEW-ni-form ), one of the earliest systems of writing , was invented by the Sumerians. It is distinguished by its wedge -shaped marks on clay tablets , made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus . The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped". Emerging in Sumer
Sumer
in the late fourth millennium BC to convey the Sumerian language
Sumerian language
which was an language isolate (the Uruk IV period ), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms . In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller (Hittite cuneiform ). The system consists of a combination of logophonetic , consonantal alphabetic and syllabic signs
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Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/ , Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; Arabic
Arabic
: بلاد الرافدين‎‎ bilād ar-rāfidayn; Kurdish : میزۆپۆتامیا‎; Persian : میان‌رودان‎‎ miyān rudān; Syriac : ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system , in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq
Iraq
plus Kuwait
Kuwait
, the eastern parts of Syria
Syria
, Southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders . The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c
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