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Influenza A Virus Subtype H5n1
Influenza A virus
Influenza A virus
subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.[1] A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1
H5N1
flu, commonly known as avian influenza ("bird flu"). It is enzootic (maintained in the population) in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia. It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread
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Influenza A Virus
Influenza
Influenza
A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans.[1] Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics.[2][3] Influenza
Influenza
A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase)
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1918 Flu Pandemic
The 1918 flu pandemic
1918 flu pandemic
(January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1
H1N1
influenza virus.[1] It infected 500 million people around the world,[2] including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million (three to five percent of the world's population),[3] making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.[4][5][6] Disease had already greatly limited life expectancy in the early 20th century
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Laninamivir
Laninamivir
Laninamivir
(CS-8958) is a neuraminidase inhibitor which is being researched for the treatment and prophylaxis of Influenzavirus A
Influenzavirus A
and Influenzavirus B.[1] It is currently in Phase III clinical trials.[2] It is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor administered by nasal inhalation.[3] Laninamivir
Laninamivir
was approved for influenza treatment in Japan in 2010 and for prophylaxis in 2013. It is currently marketed under the name Inavir by Daiichi Sankyo. Biota Pharmaceuticals [4] and Daiichi Sankyo co-own Laninamivir
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Oseltamivir
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).[3] Many medical organizations recommend it in people who have complications or are at high risk of complications within 48 hours of first symptoms of infection.[4] They recommend it to prevent infection in those at high risk, but not the general population.[4] The CDC recommends that clinicians use their discretion to treat those at lower risk who present within 48 hours of first symptoms of infection.[4][5][6] It is taken by mouth, either as a pill or liquid.[3] Recommendations regarding oseltamivir are controversial as are criticisms of the recommendations.[4][7][8][9] A 2014 Cochrane review concluded that oseltamivir does not reduce hospitalizations, and that there is no evidence of reduction in complications of influenza.[9] Two meta-analyses have concluded that benefits in those who are otherwise healthy do not outweigh its risks.[10][11] They als
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Peramivir
Peramivir
Peramivir
(trade name Rapivab) is an antiviral drug developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of influenza. Peramivir
Peramivir
is a neuraminidase inhibitor, acting as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase and thereby preventing new viruses from emerging from infected cells. It is approved for intravenous administration.[1] In October 2009, the U.S
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Rimantadine
Rimantadine
Rimantadine
(INN, sold under the trade name Flumadine) is an orally administered antiviral drug[1] used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, influenzavirus A infection. When taken within one to two days of developing symptoms, rimantadine can shorten the duration and moderate the severity of influenza. Both rimantadine and the similar drug amantadine are derivates of adamantane
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Umifenovir
Umifenovir[2] (trade name Russian: Арбидол, Chinese: 阿比朵尔) is an antiviral treatment for influenza infection used in Russia[3] and China. The drug is manufactured by Pharmstandard (Russian: Фармстандарт). Although some Russian studies have shown it to be effective, it is not approved for use in Western countries
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Vitamin D And Respiratory Tract Infections
A link between vitamin D and respiratory tract infections has been hypothesised. According to the hypothesis, vitamin D deficiency may predispose to infection. Evidence supporting the hypothesis derives from some scientific studies and the observation that outbreaks of respiratory infections occur predominantly during months associated with lower exposure to the sun. Evidence against the hypothesis has also been reported
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Zanamivir
Zanamivir
Zanamivir
is a medication used to treat and prevent influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses. It is a neuraminidase inhibitor and was developed by the Australian biotech firm Biota Holdings. It was licensed to Glaxo in 1990 and approved in the US in 1999, only for use as a treatment for influenza. In 2006, it was approved for prevention of influenza A and B.[1] Zanamivir
Zanamivir
was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed
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2009 Flu Pandemic
The 2009 flu pandemic
2009 flu pandemic
or swine flu was an influenza pandemic, and the second of the three pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918 flu pandemic), albeit in a new version. First described in April 2009, the virus appeared to be a new strain of H1N1 which resulted when a previous triple reassortment of bird, swine and human flu viruses further combined with a Eurasian pig flu virus,[2] leading to the term "swine flu".[3] Unlike most strains of influenza, H1N1 does not disproportionately infect adults older than 60 years; this was an unusual and characteristic feature of the H1N1 pandemic.[4] Even in the case of previously very healthy people, a small percentage will develop pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
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1968 Flu Pandemic
The 1968 flu pandemic
1968 flu pandemic
was a category 2 flu pandemic whose outbreak in 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide.[1][2][3] It was caused by an H3N2
H3N2
strain of the influenza A virus, descended from H2N2
H2N2
through antigenic shift, a genetic process in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. Because it originated in Hong Kong, the pandemic is also referred to as Hong Kong
Hong Kong
flu.Contents1 The 1968–1969 pandemic 2 Clinical data 3 Virology 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksThe 1968–1969 pandemic[edit] The first record of the outbreak in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
appeared on 13 July 1968. By the end of July 1968, extensive outbreaks were reported in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Singapore
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Asian Flu In 1957
Asian may refer to:Items from or related to the continent of Asia: Asian people, people who descend from Asia Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asia Asian (cat), a cat breed similar to the Burmese but in a range of different coat colors an
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Outbreak
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or impact upon thousands of people across an entire continent. Two linked cases of a rare infectious disease may be sufficient to constitute an outbreak. Outbreaks include epidemics, which term is normally only used for infectious diseases, as well as diseases with an environmental origin, such as a water or foodborne disease. They may affect a region in a country or a group of countries. Pandemics are near-global disease outbreaks.Contents1 Outbreak
Outbreak
investigation 2 Types 3 Outbreak
Outbreak
legislation 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Outbreak
Outbreak
investigation[edit] When investigating disease outbreaks, the epidemiology profession has developed a number of widely accepted steps
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Influenza Treatment
Treatments for influenza include a range of medications and therapies that are used in response to disease influenza. Treatments may either directly target the influenza virus itself; or instead they may just offer relief to symptoms of the disease, while the body's own immune system works to recover from infection.[1] The two main classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir, or inhibitors of the viral M2 protein, such as amantadine and rimantadine. These drugs can reduce the severity of symptoms if taken soon after infection and can also be taken to decrease the risk of infection
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2015 United States H5N2 Outbreak
In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and turkey farming operations in the Midwestern region of the United States. As of May 30, more than 43 million birds in 15 states had been destroyed as a result of the outbreak, including nearly 30 million in Iowa
Iowa
alone, the nation's largest egg producer. In the Midwestern U.S., the average price of eggs had increased 120% between April 22 and May 30. The effects however were seen nationwide, with prices in California
California
up 71% in the same timeframe.[1] The virus was first identified in Minnesota
Minnesota
in early March
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