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Inertial Guidance
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes) and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers), to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.[1] It is used on vehicles such as ships, aircraft, submarines, guided missiles and spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or closely related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial instrument, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and many other variations. Older INS systems generally used an inertial platform as their mounting point to the vehicle and the terms are sometimes considered synonymous.Comparison of accuracy of various navigation systems. The radius of the circle indicates the accuracy
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S3 (missile)
The S3 was a French land-based Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, equipped with a single 1.2-megatonne thermonuclear warhead. In France it is called an SSBS, for Sol-Sol Balistique Stratégique, or Ground-Ground Strategic Ballistic Missile. Design[edit] The S3 is a two-stage, solid-propellant Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM). The first stage was inherited from the S2, with a P16 solid fuel engine and 4 exhausts. The first stage carries 16,940 kg (37,350 lb) of fuel and burns for 72 seconds. The second stage carries 6,015 kg (13,261 lb) and burns for 58 seconds. The nuclear warhead, a single 1.2 Mt TN 61, is hardened and carries penetration aids.[1] Operational history[edit] From 1971, the main land-based component of the French nuclear deterrent (force de dissuasion) was the S2 missile. In 1973, a programme was started to develop a second-generation "ground-ground ballistic strategic" (SSBS in French) missile, completed in 1980
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Airliner
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most often operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an aircraft intended for carrying multiple passengers or cargo in commercial service. The largest airliners are wide-body jets. These aircraft are frequently called twin-aisle aircraft because they generally have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. These aircraft are usually used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities with many passengers. A smaller, more common class of airliners is the narrow-body or single aisle aircraft. These smaller airliners are generally used for short to medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts. Regional airliners typically seat fewer than 100 passengers and may be powered by turbofans or turboprops
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Estimation Theory
Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component. The parameters describe an underlying physical setting in such a way that their value affects the distribution of the measured data. An estimator attempts to approximate the unknown parameters using the measurements. For example, it is desired to estimate the proportion of a population of voters who will vote for a particular candidate. That proportion is the parameter sought; the estimate is based on a small random sample of voters. Or, for example, in radar the aim is to find the range of objects (airplanes, boats, etc.) by analyzing the two-way transit timing of received echoes of transmitted pulses
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Satellite Navigation
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. Satnav systems operate independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the positioning information generated. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
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Pedometer
A pedometer is a device, usually portable and electronic or electromechanical, that counts each step a person takes by detecting the motion of the person's hands or hips. Because the distance of each person's step varies, an informal calibration, performed by the user, is required if presentation of the distance covered in a unit of length (such as in kilometers or miles) is desired, though there are now pedometers that use electronics and software to automatically determine how a person's step varies. Distance traveled (by walking or any other means) can be measured directly by a GPS receiver. Used originally by sports and physical fitness enthusiasts, pedometers are now becoming popular as an everyday exercise counter and motivator. Often worn on the belt and kept on all day, it can record how many steps the wearer has walked that day, and thus the kilometers or miles (distance = number of steps × step length)
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Position Sensor
A position sensor is any device that permits position measurement. It can either be an absolute position sensor or a relative one (displacement sensor)
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GPS/INS
GPS/INS is the use of GPS
GPS
satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an inertial navigation system (INS). The method is applicable for any GNSS/INS system.Contents1 Overview1.1 Problem 1.2 GPS/INS method2 Applications 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Problem[edit] Inertial navigation systems usually can provide an accurate solution only for a short period of time. The INS accelerometers produce an unknown bias signal that appears as a genuine specific force. This is acceleration integrated twice against time and thus produces an error in position. Additionally, the INS software must use an estimate of the angular position of the accelerometers when conducting this integration. Typically, the angular position is tracked through an integration of the angular rate from the gyro sensors
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Numerical Stability
In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, numerical stability is a generally desirable property of numerical algorithms. The precise definition of stability depends on the context. One is numerical linear algebra and the other is algorithms for solving ordinary and partial differential equations by discrete approximation. In numerical linear algebra the principal concern is instabilities caused by proximity to singularities of various kinds, such as very small or nearly colliding eigenvalues. On the other hand, in numerical algorithms for differential equations the concern is the growth of round-off errors and/or initially small fluctuations in initial data which might cause a large deviation of final answer from the exact solution[citation needed]. Some numerical algorithms may damp out the small fluctuations (errors) in the input data; others might magnify such errors. Calculations that can be proven not to magnify approximation errors are called numerically stable
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Rocket
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin")[nb 1][1] is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine
Rocket engine
exhaust is formed entirely from propellant carried within the rocket before use.[2] Rocket
Rocket
engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and can therefore work in the vacuum of space. In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere. Multistage rockets are capable of attaining escape velocity from Earth and therefore can achieve unlimited maximum altitude. Compared with airbreathing engines, rockets are lightweight and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations
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Robert Goddard (scientist)
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.[2] Goddard successfully launched his model on March 16, 1926, ushering in an era of space flight and innovation
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Wernher Von Braun
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr
Freiherr
von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later American, aerospace engineer,[3] and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the father of rocket technology and space science in the United States.[4] In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
during World War II. Following the war, von Braun was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip. He worked for the United States Army
United States Army
on an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) program and he developed the rockets that launched the United States' first space satellite Explorer 1
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Computer
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms
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Azimuth
An azimuth (/ˈæzɪməθ/ ( listen)) (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth. An example of azimuth is the angular direction of a star in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the local horizontal area (e.g. a circular area 5 km in radius around an observer at sea level), and the reference vector points north. The azimuth is the angle between the north vector and the star's vector on the horizontal plane.[1] Azimuth
Azimuth
is usually measured in degrees (°)
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Graphite
Graphite
Graphite
( /ˈɡræfaɪt/), archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.[5] Graphite
Graphite
is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions
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