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Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested
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Louis-Guillaume Otto
Otto
Otto
is a masculine German given name
German given name
and a surname. It originates as an Old High German
Old High German
short form (variants Audo, Odo, Udo) of Germanic names beginning in aud-, an element meaning "wealth, prosperity".[1] The name is recorded from the 7th century (Odo, son of Uro, courtier of Sigebert III). It was the name of three 10th-century German kings, the first of whom was Otto
Otto
I the Great, the first Holy Roman Emperor, founder of the Ottonian
Ottonian
dynasty. The Gothic form of the prefix was auda- (as in e.g. Audaþius), the Anglo-Saxon form was ead- (as in e.g
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Domestication
Domestication
Domestication
is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.[1] Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits.[2][3][4] There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations
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William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
(7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature
English literature
with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads
Lyrical Ballads
(1798). Wordsworth's magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semi-autobiographical poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times
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Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
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Territorial Evolution Of The British Empire
The territorial evolution of the British Empire
British Empire
is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire
English colonial empire
in the late 16th century. Since then, many territories around the world have been under the control of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or its predecessor states. When the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
was formed in 1707 by the union of the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
with the Kingdom of England, the latter country's colonial possessions passed to the new state. Similarly, when Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
in 1801 to form the United Kingdom, control over its colonial possessions passed to the latter state. Collectively, these territories are referred to as the British Empire
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Robert Owen
Robert Owen
Robert Owen
(/ˈoʊən/; 14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. Owen is best known for his efforts to improve the working conditions of his factory workers and his promotion of experimental socialistic communities. In the early 1800s Owen became wealthy as an investor and eventual manager of a large textile mill at New Lanark, Scotland. (He initially trained as a draper in Stamford, Lincolnshire, and worked in London, England, before relocating to Manchester
Manchester
in the 1780s and going into business as a textile manufacturer.) In 1824 Owen travelled to America, where he invested the bulk of his fortune in an experimental socialistic community at New Harmony, Indiana, the preliminary model for Owen's utopian society. The experiment was short-lived, lasting about two years
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Great Britain
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world.[5][note 1] In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan.[7][8] The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.[9] The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and constitutes most of its territory.[10] Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island
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Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui
Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui
Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui
(November 21, 1798 – January 28, 1854) was a French economist. His most important contributions were made in labour economics, economic history and especially the history of economic thought, in which field his 1837 treatise has been the first major work
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Robert Southey
Robert Southey
Robert Southey
(/ˈsaʊði/ or /ˈsʌði/[a] 12 August 1774 – 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843. Although his fame has long been eclipsed by that of his contemporaries and friends William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Southey's verse still enjoys some popularity. Southey was also a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer, historian and biographer. His biographies include the life and works of John Bunyan, John Wesley, William Cowper, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and Horatio Nelson. The last has rarely been out of print since its publication in 1813 and was adapted for the screen in the 1926 British film, Nelson
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Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(/ˈɛŋɡəlz/,[2][3] /ˈɛŋəlz/;[3] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈɛŋəls], sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.[4] His father was an owner of a large textile factory at Manchester, England. Engels founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and in 1845 published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in Manchester. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
with Marx
Marx
and also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works. Later, Engels supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write Das Kapital
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GDP Per Capita
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. As of 2015, the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is USD $15,800.[2]Contents1 Methodology 2 Lists of countries and dependencies 3 See also 4 ReferencesMethodology The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the World
World
Bank
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Social Change
Social change
Social change
is an alteration in the social order of a society. Social change
Social change
may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviours, or social relations.Contents1 Definition 2 Prominent theories 3 Current social changes3.1 Global demographic shifts 3.2 Gendered patterns of work and care4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDefinition[edit] Social change
Social change
may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Accordingly, it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement
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Cotton Gin
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.[1] The fibers are then processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used largely for textiles like clothing. Seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
since at earliest AD 500 and then in other regions.[2] The Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented some time around the sixteenth century,[3] has, according to Lakwete, remained virtually unchanged up to the present time. A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
in 1793 and patented in 1794
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Pig Iron
Pig iron
Pig iron
is an intermediate product of the iron industry. Crude iron as first obtained from a smelting furnace, in the form of oblong blocks. Pig iron
Pig iron
has a very high carbon content, typically 3.8–4.7%,[1] along with silica and other constituents of dross, which makes it very brittle, and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. Pig iron
Pig iron
is made by smelting iron ore into a transportable ingot of impure high carbon-content iron in a blast furnace as an ingredient for further processing steps.[2] The traditional shape of the molds used for pig iron ingots was a branching structure formed in sand, with many individual ingots at right angles[3] to a central channel or runner, resembling a litter of piglets being suckled by a sow
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Keywords
Keyword may refer to: Computing[edit] Keyword (computer programming), word or identifier that has a particular meaning to the programming language Keyword (cryptography), word used as the key to determine the letter matching of the cipher alphabet to the plain alphabet Keyword (Internet search) Index term, a term used as a keyword to retrieve documents in an information system such as a catalog or a search engine
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