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Industrial Radiography
Industrial radiography
Industrial radiography
is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen. Industrial Radiography can be performed utilizing either X-rays
X-rays
or gamma rays. Both are forms of electromagnetic radiation
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Silver Nitrate
Silver
Silver
nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO 3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. It is far less sensitive to light than the halides. It was once called lunar caustic because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists, who believed that silver was associated with the moon.[8] In solid silver nitrate, the silver ions are three-coordinated in a trigonal planar arrangement.[5]Contents1 Discovery 2 Synthesis 3 Reactions 4 Uses4.1 Precursor to other silver compounds 4.2 Halide abstraction 4.3 Organic synthesis 4.4 Biology5 Medicine5.1 Disinfection 5.2 Against warts6 Safety 7 References 8 External linksDiscovery[edit] Albertus Magnus, in the 13th century, documented the ability of nitric acid to separate gold and silver by dissolving the silver
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Alloy
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character.[1] An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength
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Weld Inspection
Weld quality assurance
Weld quality assurance
is the use of technological methods and actions to test or assure the quality of welds, and secondarily to confirm the presence, location and coverage of welds.[original research?] In manufacturing, welds are used to join two or more metal surfaces. Because these connections may encounter loads and fatigue during product lifetime, there is a chance they may fail if not created to proper specification.Contents1 Weld testing and analysis1.1 Imaging-based methods1.1.1 X-ray 1.1.2 Visible light imaging1.2 Ultrasonic- and acoustic-based meth
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X-ray Machine
An X-ray
X-ray
machine is any machine that involves X-rays. It may consist of an X-ray generator
X-ray generator
and an X-ray
X-ray
detector. Examples include:Machines for medical projectional radiography Machines for computed tomography Backscatter X-ray
X-ray
machines, used as "body scanners" in airport security Detectors in X-ray
X-ray
astronomyThis physics-related article is a stub
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Intermodal Freight Transport
Intermodal freight transport
Intermodal freight transport
involves the transportation of freight in an intermodal container or vehicle, using multiple modes of transportation (e.g., rail, ship, and truck), without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. The method reduces cargo handling, and so improves security, reduces damage and loss, and allows freight to be transported faster. Reduced costs over road trucking is the key benefit for inter-continental use
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Stowaway
A stowaway is a person who secretly boards a vehicle, such as a ship, an aircraft, a train, cargo truck or bus, in order to travel without paying and without being detected.Contents1 Air travel1.1 Security2 Rail transportation 3 Ship
Ship
travel3.1 Origin 3.2 In United States 3.3 From 18434 See also 5 References 6 External linksAir travel[edit] Further information: List of wheel-well stowaway flights Poor perimeter security at a number of airports around the world can make it easier for people to stow away on planes.[1] Stowaways in aircraft wheel wells face numerous health risks, many of which are fata
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X-ray Computed Tomography
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray
X-ray
measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. Other terms include computed axial tomography (CAT scan) and computer aided tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to further generate a three-dimensional volume of the inside of the object from a large series of two-dimensional radiographic images taken around a single axis of rotation.[2] Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the most common application of X-ray
X-ray
CT
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Nanometre
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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X-ray Tube
An X-ray
X-ray
tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.[1] X-ray
X-ray
tubes evolved from experimental Crookes tubes with which X-rays were first discovered on November 8, 1895, by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. The availability of this controllable source of X-rays created the field of radiography, the imaging of partly opaque objects with penetrating radiation. In contrast to other sources of ionizing radiation, X-rays are only produced as long as the X-ray
X-ray
tube is energized. X-ray
X-ray
tubes are also used in CT scanners, airport luggage scanners, X-ray
X-ray
crystallography, material and structure analysis, and for industrial inspection.Coolidge X-ray
X-ray
tube, from around 1917. The heated cathode is on the left, and the anode is right
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Stainless Steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.[1] Stainless steels are notable for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Molybdenum
Molybdenum
additions increase corrosion resistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Thus stainless steels are used where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steel’s resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar lustre make it an ideal material for many applications
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Delamination
Delamination
Delamination
is a mode of failure for composite materials[1] and steel.[2] In laminated materials, repeated cyclic stresses, impact, and so on can cause layers to separate, forming a mica-like structure of separate layers, with significant loss of mechanical toughness. Delamination
Delamination
also occurs in reinforced concrete structures subject to reinforcement corrosion, in which case the oxidized metal of the reinforcement is greater in volume than the original metal
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Neutron Activation
Neutron
Neutron
activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states. The excited nucleus often decays immediately by emitting gamma rays, or particles such as beta particles, alpha particles, fission products, and neutrons (in nuclear fission). Thus, the process of neutron capture, even after any intermediate decay, often results in the formation of an unstable activation product. Such radioactive nuclei can exhibit half-lives ranging from small fractions of a second to many years. Neutron
Neutron
activation is the only common way that a stable material can be induced into becoming intrinsically radioactive
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Beta Particle
A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted in the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus, such as a potassium-40 nucleus, in the process of beta decay. Two forms of beta decay, β− and β+, respectively produce electrons and positrons.[1] Beta
Beta
particles are a type of ionizing radiation.Contents1 β− decay (electron emission) 2 β+ decay (positron emission) 3 Interaction with other matter3.1 Detection and measurement4 Uses 5 History 6 Health 7 See also 8 References 9 Further readingβ− decay (electron emission)[edit] Main article: β− decay Beta
Beta
decay. A beta particle (in this case a negative electron) is shown being emitted by a nucleus. An antineutrino (not shown) is always emitted along with an electron
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Controlled Area
In telecommunication, a controlled area is an area in which uncontrolled movement will not result in compromise of classified information, that is designed to provide administrative control and safety, or that serves as a buffer for controlling access to limited-access areas. It can also refer to an area to which security controls have been applied to protect an information-processing system's equipment and wirelines, equivalent to that required for the information transmitted through the system. References[edit]  This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration
General Services Administration
document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support of MIL-STD-188).This article related to telecommunications is a stub
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Neutron
5000000000000000000♠0 e 3021799999999999999♠(−2±8)×10−22 e (experimental limits)[4]Electric dipole moment < 6974290000000000000♠2.9×10−26 e⋅cm (experimental upper limit)Electric polarizability 6997116000000000000♠1.16(15)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment 3026033763500000000♠−0.96623650(23)×10−26 J·T−1[3] 3002895812437000000♠−1.04187563(25)×10−3 μB[3] 2999808695726999999♠−1.91304273(45) μN[3]Magnetic polarizability 6996370000000000000♠3.7(20)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin −1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms
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