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Indoplanorbis
Planorbis exustus Deshayes, 1834 Indoplanorbis
Indoplanorbis
is a genus of air-breathing freshwater snail. Its only member species is Indoplanorbis
Indoplanorbis
exustus, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails. The species is widely distributed across the tropics. It serves as an important intermediate host for several trematode parasites.[7] The invasive nature and ecological tolerance of Indoplanorbis
Indoplanorbis
exustus add to its importance in veterinary and medical science.[7]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Distribution2.1 Biogeography3 Description 4 Ecology4.1 Habitat 4.2 Life cycle 4.3 Predators 4.4 Parasites 4.5 Toxicology5 References 6 External linksTaxonomy[edit] Indoplanorbis
Indoplanorbis
exustus is the only known species in the genus Indoplanorbis
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Conservation Status
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future
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Socotra
Socotra
Socotra
(Arabic: سُقُطْرَى‎ Suquṭra), also spelled Soqotra, is an archipelago of four islands located in the Arabian Sea, the largest island of which is also known as Socotra. The territory is part of Yemen, and had long been a subdivision of the Aden Governorate. In 2004, it became attached to the Hadhramaut Governorate, which is much closer to the island than Aden
Aden
(although the nearest governorate was the Al Mahrah Governorate). In 2013, the archipelago became its own governorate, the Socotra
Socotra
Governorate. The island of Socotra
Socotra
constitutes around 95% of the landmass of the Socotra
Socotra
archipelago
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Intermediate Host
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter. Examples include animals playing host to parasitic worms (e.g. nematodes), cells harbouring pathogenic (disease-causing) viruses, a bean plant hosting mutualistic (helpful) nitrogen-fixing bacteria. More specifically in botany, a host plant supplies food resources to micropredators, which have an evolutionarily stable relationship with their hosts similar to ectoparasitism
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Trematode
Trematoda
Trematoda
is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes. It includes two groups of parasitic flatworms, known as flukes. They are internal parasites of molluscs and vertebrates. Most trematodes have a complex life cycle with at least two hosts. The primary host, where the flukes sexually reproduce, is a vertebrate. The intermediate host, in which asexual reproduction occurs, is usually a snail.Contents1 Taxonomy and biodiversity 2 Anatomy2.1 Reproductive system3 Life cycles3.1 Life cycle adaptations4 Infections 5 Etymology 6 References 7 External linksTaxonomy and biodiversity[edit] The trematodes or flukes include 18,000[1] to 24,000[2] species, divided into two subclasses. Nearly all trematodes are parasites of mollusks and vertebrates. The smaller Aspidogastrea, comprising about 100 species, are obligate parasites of mollusks and may also infect turtles and fish, including cartilaginous fish
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Invasive Species
An invasive species is a plant, fungus, or animal species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.[1][dubious – discuss] A study by Colautti et al. pointed out widely divergent perceptions of the criteria for invasive species among researchers (p. 135) and concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive" (p. 136).[2] Some of the alternate usages of the term are below:The term as most often used applies to introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores)
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Phylogeography
Phylogeography
Phylogeography
is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of genetics, particularly population genetics.[1] This term was introduced to describe geographically structured genetic signals within and among species. An explicit focus on a species' biogeography/biogeographical past sets phylogeography apart from classical population genetics and phylogenetics.[2] Past events that can be inferred include population expansion, population bottlenecks, vicariance and migration
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Bulinus
at least 7 fossil speciesSynonyms[4]Kosovia Atanacković, 1959[3]Bulinus is a genus of small tropical freshwater snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Planorbidae, the ramshorn snails and their allies. This genus is medically important because several species of Bulinus function as intermediate hosts for the schistosomiasis blood fluke.[5]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Distribution 3 Shell description 4 Species 5 References 6 External linksTaxonomy[edit] Miocene genus Kosovia was synonymized Bulinus in 2017.[4] Distribution[edit] These snails are widespread in Africa including Madagascar[6] and the Middle East.[7] This genus has not yet become established in the USA, but it is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest, an invasive species which could negatively affect agriculture, natural ecosystems, human health or commerce
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List Of Non-marine Molluscs Of Sri Lanka
Mammals of Sri Lanka (Endemics) Amphibians of Sri Lanka Reptiles of Sri Lanka Freshwater fish of Sri Lanka Introduced fish of Sri Lanka Cartilage fish of Sri Lanka Commercial fish of Sri Lanka Butterflies of Sri Lanka Beetles of Sri Lanka Moths of Sri Lanka Dipterans of Sri Lanka Mosquitoes of Sri Lanka Hymenopterans of Sri Lanka Orthopterans of Sri Lanka Cockroaches of Sri Lanka Termites of Sri Lanka Earwigs of Sri Lanka Lacewings of Sri Lanka Phasmid of Sri Lanka Hemiptera of Sri Lanka Mantids of Sri Lanka Minor insects of Sri Lanka Bees of Sri Lanka Odonates of Sri Lanka Aphids of Sri Lanka Ants of Sri Lanka Freshwater crabs of Sri Lanka Non-marine molluscs of Sri Lanka Myriapods of Sri Lanka Spiders of Sri Lanka Tarantulas of Sri Lanka Scorpions of Sri Lanka Hard ticks of Sri Lanka Mites of Sri Lanka Isopods of Sri Lanka Pseudoscorpions of Sri Lanka Lesser arachnids of Sri Lanka Trees of Sri Lanka Mangroves of Sri Lanka Pteridophytes of Sri LankaGardens Zoological gardens Pi
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List Of Non-marine Molluscs Of Thailand
The non-marine mollusks of Thailand are a part of the molluscan fauna of Thailand (the wildlife of Thailand)
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Malabar (Northern Kerala)
Malabar region
Malabar region
is an area of southern India lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabikkadal. The name is thought to be derived from the Malayalam
Malayalam
words mala (hill) and pur-am (range, region), westernized into -bar[citation needed].Contents1 History 2 Physical Geography 3 Port cities 4 Malabar District 5 In modern period 6 Malabar rainforests 7 See also 8 Further reading 9 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Malabar Coast, in historical contexts, refers to India's southwest coast, lying on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Kerala states between the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
range and the Arabian Sea. The coast runs from south of Goa
Goa
to Cape Comorin
Cape Comorin
on India's southern tip. In ancient times the term Malabar was used to denote the entire south-western coast of the Indian peninsula
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Oman
Coordinates: 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان (Arabic) Salṭanat ʻUmānFlagNational emblemAnthem: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī" "Sultanic Salutation"Location of Oman
Oman
in the Arabian Peninsula
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Pest (organism)
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.[1][2]Contents1 Concept 2 By taxon2.1 Vertebrate pests2.1.1 Birds 2.1.2 Amphibians 2.1.3 Mammals2.2 Invertebrates2.2.1 Insects and arachnids2.2.1.1 Agricultural and domestic arthropods 2.2.1.2 Tree and forest pests 2.2.1.3 Ectoparasites2.2.2 Nematodes 2.2.3 Gastropod
Gastropod
molluscs2.3 Plant diseases 2.4 Weeds3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksConcept[edit] A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, which is invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures
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Family
In the context of human society, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family"[citation needed] [...] from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave [...]'[1]) or some combination of these.[citation needed] Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters[citation needed]. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law[citation needed]
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Quarantine
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.[1] This is often used in connection to disease and illness, such as those who may possibly have been exposed to a communicable disease.[2] The term is often erroneously used to mean medical isolation, which is "to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease from those who are healthy".[3] The word comes from an Italian variant (seventeenth-century Venetian) of 'quaranta giorni', meaning forty days, the period that all ships were required to be isolated before passengers and crew could go ashore during the Black Death
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Gondwana
Gondwana
Gondwana
( /ɡɒndˈwɑːnə/),[1] or Gondwanaland,[2] was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(about 320 million years ago). It was formed by the accretion of several cratons. Eventually, Gondwana became the largest piece of continental crust of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, covering an area of about 100,000,000 km2 (39,000,000 sq mi).[3] During the Carboniferous, it merged with Euramerica
Euramerica
to form a larger supercontinent called Pangaea. Gondwana
Gondwana
(and Pangaea) gradually broke up during the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era
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