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Indian Communism
Socialism
Socialism
in India
India
is a political movement founded early in the 20th century, as a part of the broader Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
against the colonial British Raj. It grew quickly in popularity as it espoused the causes of India's farmers and labourers against the zamindars, princely class and landed gentry. Socialism
Socialism
shaped the principle economic and social policies of the Indian government after independence until the early 1990s, when India
India
moved towards a more market-based economy. However, it remains a potent influence on Indian politics, with a large number of national and regional political parties espousing democratic socialism. Small socialist revolutionary groups arose in India
India
in the aftermath of the October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia
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Socialism
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Soviet-type Economic Planning
Soviet-type economic planning
Soviet-type economic planning
(STP) is the specific model of centralized economic planning employed by Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
socialist states modeled on the economy of the Soviet Union
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To Each According To His Contribution
"To each according to his contribution" is a principle of distribution considered to be one of the defining features of socialism
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From Each According To His Ability, To Each According To His Needs
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.[1] The principle refers to free access and distribution of goods, capital and services.[2] In the Marxist view, such an arrangement will be made possible by the abundance of goods and services that a developed communist system will produce; the idea is that, with the full development of socialism and unfettered productive forces, there will be enough to satisfy everyone's needs.[3][4]Contents1 Origin of the phrase 2 Debates on the idea 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readi
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Workplace Democracy
Workplace democracy is the application of democracy in all its forms (including voting systems, debates, democratic structuring, due process, adversarial process, systems of appeal) to the workplace.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Associated with ideologies 1.2 Studies by management science 1.3 Early theory 1.4 Relation to political theory2 Current approaches2.1 Limits of management 2.2 Mondragon 2.3 Influenced matrix management 2.4 Semler and Semco 2.5 Venezuela3 Comparison to Taylorism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Associated with ideologies[edit] These methods are often seen as associated with trade unions (or more lately eco-socialism)
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Workers' Self-management
Self-management or workers' self-management (also referred to as labor management, autogestión, workers' control, industrial democracy, democratic management and producer cooperatives) is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce. Self-management is a characteristic of many forms of socialism, with proposals for self-management having appeared many times throughout the history of the socialist movement, advocated variously by market socialists, communists, and anarchists.[1] There are many variations of self-management. In some variants, all the worker-members manage the enterprise directly through assemblies; in other forms, workers exercise management functions indirectly through the election of specialist managers
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Decentralized Planning (economics)
A decentralized-planned economy or decentrally-planned economy (occasionally horizontally-planned economy) is a type of economic system based on decentralized economic planning, in which decision-making is distributed amongst various economic agents or localized within production units. Decentralized planning is held in contrast to centralized planning where economic information is aggregated and used to formulate a plan for production, investment and resource allocation by a central authority. Decentralised planning can take shape both in the context of a mixed economy as well as in a post-capitalist economic system. This usually implies some form of democratic decision-making within the economy or within firms in the form of economic democracy or industrial democracy
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Participatory Economics
Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocation in society. In the system the say in decision-making is proportional to the impact on a person or group of people. Participatory economics
Participatory economics
is a form of decentralized economic planning and socialism involving the common ownership of the means of production. It is a proposed alternative to contemporary capitalism and centralized planning. This economic model is primarily associated with political theorist Michael Albert
Michael Albert
and economist Robin Hahnel, who describe participatory economics as an anarchist economic vision.[1] The underlying values that parecon seeks to implement are equity, solidarity, diversity, workers' self-management and efficiency (defined as accomplishing goals without wasting valued assets)
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Market Socialism
Market socialism
Market socialism
is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy. Market socialism
Market socialism
differs from non-market socialism in that the market mechanism is utilized for the allocation of capital goods and the means of production.[1][2][3] Depending on the specific model of market socialism, profits generated by socially owned firms (i.e
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Lange Model
The Lange model
Lange model
(or Lange–Lerner theorem) is a neoclassical economic model for a hypothetical socialist economy based on public ownership of the means of production and a trial-and-error approach to determining output targets and achieving economic equilibrium and Pareto efficiency. In this model, the state owns non-labor factors of production, and markets allocate final goods and consumer goods. The Lange model
Lange model
states that if all production is performed by a public body such as the state, and there is a functioning price mechanism, this economy will be Pareto-efficient, like a hypothetical market economy under perfect competition. Unlike models of capitalism, the Lange model
Lange model
is based on direct allocation, by directing enterprise managers to set price equal to marginal cost in order to achieve Pareto efficiency
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Mutualism (economic Theory)
Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or in purely voluntary collectives, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market.[1] Integral to the scheme is the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration.[2] Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value that holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility".[3] Mutualism originated from the writings of philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Mutualists oppose the idea of individuals receiving an income through loans, investments and rent as they believe these individuals are not laboring
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Planned Economy
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods is performed through economy-wide economic and production plans
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OGAS
OGAS (Russian: Общегосударственная автоматизированная система учёта и обработки информации, All-State Automated System) was a Soviet project to create a nationwide information network. The project began in 1962 but was denied necessary funding in 1970. It was one of a series of attempts to create a nationwide network analogous to what became the Internet, all of which failed. The primary architect of OGAS was Viktor Glushkov
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Socialism In One Country
Socialism
Socialism
in one country (Russian: социализм в одной стране, tr. sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and Nikolai Bukharin
Nikolai Bukharin
in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as state policy.[1] The theory held that given the defeat of all the communist revolutions in Europe in 1917–1923 except Russia, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
should begin to strengthen itself internally. That turn toward national communism was a shift from the previously held position by classical Marxism
Marxism
that socialism must be established globally (world communism). However, the proponents of the theory contend that it contradicts neither world revolution nor world communism
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Project Cybersyn
Project Cybersyn
Project Cybersyn
was a Chilean project from 1971–1973 during the presidency of Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy. The project consisted of four modules: an economic simulator, custom software to check factory performance, an operations room, and a national network of telex machines that were linked to one mainframe computer.[2] Project Cybersyn
Project Cybersyn
was based on viable system model theory and a neural network approach to organizational design, and featured innovative technology for its time: it included a network of telex machines (Cybernet) in state-run enterprises that would transmit and receive information with the government in Santiago
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