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Indian Communism
SOCIALISM IN INDIA is a political movement founded early in the 20th century, as a part of the broader Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
against the colonial British Raj
British Raj
. It grew quickly in popularity as it espoused the causes of India's farmers and labourers against the zamindars , princely class and landed gentry. Socialism
Socialism
shaped the principle economic and social policies of the Indian government after independence until the early 1990s, when India
India
moved towards a more market-based economy . However, it remains a potent influence on Indian politics, with a large number of national and regional political parties espousing democratic socialism . Small socialist revolutionary groups arose in India
India
in the aftermath of the October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia
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Ricardian Socialism
RICARDIAN SOCIALISM is a branch of classical economic thought based upon the work of the economist David Ricardo
David Ricardo
(1772–1823). The term is used to describe economists in the 1820s and 1830s who developed a theory of capitalist exploitation from the theory developed by Ricardo that stated that labor is the source of all wealth and exchange value . This principle extends back to the principles of English philosopher John Locke
John Locke
. The Ricardian socialists reasoned that labor is entitled to all it produces, and that rent, profit and interest were not natural outgrowths of the free market process but were instead distortions. They argued that private ownership of the means of production should be supplanted by cooperatives owned by associations of workers
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Mutualism (economic Theory)
MUTUALISM is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society where each person might possess a means of production , either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market . Integral to the scheme is the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration. Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value that holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility". Mutualism originated from the writings of philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon . Mutualists oppose the idea of individuals receiving an income through loans, investments, and rent, as they believe these individuals are not laboring
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Planned Economy
A PLANNED ECONOMY is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods is determined by an economy-wide plan of production. A planned economy may be based on centralized , decentralized or participatory forms of economic planning . A COMMAND ECONOMY or ADMINISTRATIVE COMMAND ECONOMY refers to the nominally-planned economies of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and eastern bloc to highlight the central role of hierarchical administration in guiding the allocation of resources in these economic systems, as opposed to planned coordination. Planned economies are usually associated with Soviet-type central planning , which involves centralized state planning and administrative decision making. In command economies, important allocation decisions are made by government authorities and are imposed by law
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Soviet-type Economic Planning
SOVIET-TYPE ECONOMIC PLANNING (STP) is the specific model of economic planning employed by Marxist-Leninist socialist states modeled on the economy of the Soviet Union . Although there was significant variation among these economies, Soviet-type planning and SOVIET-TYPE ECONOMIES refers to the major structural characteristics common to these economies. Soviet-type planning is a form of economic planning involving centralized investment decisions, administrative allocation of economic inputs, material balances to reach equilibrium between available inputs and targeted outputs, and to some extent the use of linear optimization to optimize the plans
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Project Cybersyn
PROJECT CYBERSYN was a Chilean project from 1971–1973 during the presidency of Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy. The project consisted of four modules: an economic simulator, custom software to check factory performance, an operations room, and a national network of telex machines that were linked to one mainframe computer. Project Cybersyn
Project Cybersyn
was based on viable system model theory and a neural network approach to organizational design, and featured innovative technology for its time: it included a network of telex machines (Cybernet) in state-run enterprises that would transmit and receive information with the government in Santiago
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Lange Model
The LANGE MODEL (or LANGE–LERNER THEOREM) is a neoclassical economic model for a hypothetical socialist economy based on public ownership of the means of production and a trial-and-error approach to determining output targets and achieving economic equilibrium and Pareto efficiency . In this model, the state owns non-labor factors of production, and markets allocate final goods and consumer goods. The Lange model
Lange model
states that if all production is performed by a public body such as the state, and there is a functioning price mechanism, this economy will be Pareto-efficient, like a hypothetical market economy under perfect competition . Unlike models of capitalism, the Lange model
Lange model
is based on direct allocation, by directing enterprise managers to set price equal to marginal cost in order to achieve Pareto efficiency
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Market Socialism
MARKET SOCIALISM is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative , or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy . Market socialism
Market socialism
differs from non-market socialism in that the market mechanism is utilized for the allocation of capital goods and the means of production. Depending on the specific model of market socialism, profits generated by socially owned firms (i.e. net revenue not reinvested into expanding the firm) may variously be used to directly remunerate employees, accrue to society at large as the source of public finance , or be distributed amongst the population in a social dividend . Market socialism
Market socialism
is distinguished from the concept of the mixed economy , because unlike the mixed economy, models of market socialism are complete and self-regulating systems
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Workplace Democracy
WORKPLACE DEMOCRACY is the application of democracy in all its forms (including voting systems , debates , democratic structuring , due process , adversarial process , systems of appeal) to the workplace. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Associated with ideologies * 1.2 Studies by management science * 1.3 Early theory * 1.4 Relation to political theory * 2 Current approaches * 2.1 Limits of management * 2.2 Mondragon * 2.3 Influenced matrix management * 2.4 Semler and Semco * 2.5 Venezuela * 3 Comparison to Taylorism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Workers' Self-management
SELF-MANAGEMENT or WORKERS\' SELF-MANAGEMENT (also referred to as LABOR MANAGEMENT, AUTOGESTIóN, WORKERS\\' CONTROL , INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY , DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT and PRODUCER COOPERATIVES ) is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce. Self-management is a characteristic of many forms of socialism , with proposals for self-management having appeared many times throughout the history of the socialist movement, advocated variously by market socialists , communists , and anarchists . There are many variations of self-management. In some variants, all the worker-members manage the enterprise directly through assemblies; in other forms, workers exercise management functions indirectly through the election of specialist managers
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Decentralized Planning (economics)
A DECENTRALIZED-PLANNED ECONOMY or DECENTRALLY-PLANNED ECONOMY (occasionally HORIZONTALLY-PLANNED ECONOMY) is a type of economic system based on decentralized economic planning , in which decision-making is distributed amongst various economic agents or localized within production units. Decentralized planning is held in contrast to centralized planning where economic information is aggregated and used to formulate a plan for production, investment and resource allocation by a central authority. Decentralised planning can take shape both in the context of a mixed economy as well as in a post-capitalist economic system. Usually this implies some form of democratic decision-making within the economy or within firms, in the form of economic democracy or industrial democracy . Alternatively, computer-based or computer-managed forms of decentralized coordination between economic enterprises have been proposed by various economists and computer scientists
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Participatory Economics
PARTICIPATORY ECONOMICS, often abbreviated PARE-CON, is an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocating the factors of production and guidance of production in a society. Participatory decision-making involves the participation of all persons in deciding issues in proportion to the impact such decisions have on their lives. Participatory economics
Participatory economics
is a form of decentralized economic planning and socialism involving the common ownership of the means of production. It is a proposed alternative to contemporary capitalism and central planning . This economic model is primarily associated with the proposals of political theorist Michael Albert and economist Robin Hahnel , who describe participatory economics as an anarchist economic vision
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Socialist Market Economy
The SOCIALIST MARKET ECONOMY is the economic model employed by the People\'s Republic of China . It is based on the dominance of the state-owned sector and an open market economy , and has its origins in the Chinese economic reforms introduced under Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
. The ideological rationale is that China is in the primary stage of socialism , an early stage within the socialist mode of production , and therefore has to adapt capitalist techniques to thrive
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Socialist-oriented Market Economy
The SOCIALIST-ORIENTED MARKET ECONOMY (Vietnamese : Kinh tế thị trường theo định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa) is the official title given to the current economic system in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
. It is described as a multi-sectoral market economy where the state sector plays a decisive role in directing economic development , with the eventual long-term goal of developing socialism . The socialist-oriented market economy is a product of the Đổi mới economic reforms, which led to the replacement of the centrally-planned economy with a market-based mixed economy based on state-owned industry. These reforms were undertaken to allow Vietnam to integrate with the global market economy
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Authoritarian Socialism
AUTHORITARIAN SOCIALISM refers to a collection of political-economic systems describing themselves as socialist and rejecting the liberal democratic concepts of multi-party politics , freedom of assembly , habeas corpus and freedom of expression . Several countries, including the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Maoist China
China
have been described by journalists and scholars as Authoritarian Socialist states. However, neither state used the term 'authoritarian socialist' to describe themselves — these states declared themselves to be Proletarian or People\'s Democracies . Authoritarian socialism also encompassed ideologies like Arab and African Socialism
Socialism

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Anarcho-syndicalism
ANARCHO-SYNDICALISM (also referred to as REVOLUTIONARY SYNDICALISM) is a theory of anarchism which views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and, with that control, influence broader society. Syndicalists consider their economic theories a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as an alternative co-operative economic system with democratic values and production centered on meeting human needs. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are solidarity , direct action (action undertaken without the intervention of third parties such as politicians, bureaucrats, and arbitrators) and direct democracy , or workers\' self-management . The end goal of syndicalism is to abolish the wage system , regarding it as wage slavery . Anarcho-syndicalist theory therefore generally focuses on the labour movement
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