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Indian Ocean Tsunami
The 2004 Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC
UTC
on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The shock had a moment magnitude of 9.1–9.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The undersea megathrust earthquake was caused when the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
was subducted by the Burma Plate
Burma Plate
and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing 230,000–280,000 people in 14 countries, and inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 metres (100 ft) high. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history
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Aceh
Islam
Islam
98.19% Christian
Christian
1.12% <
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Effect Of The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake On Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia
was the first country to be seriously affected by the earthquake and tsunami created by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
on 26 December 2004, swamping the northern and western coastal areas of Sumatra, and the smaller outlying islands off Sumatra
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Subduction
Subduction
Subduction
is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle. Regions where this process occurs are known as subduction zones. Rates of subduction are typically in centimeters per year, with the average rate of convergence being approximately two to eight centimeters per year along most plate boundaries.[1] Plates include both oceanic crust and continental crust. Stable subduction zones involve the oceanic lithosphere of one plate sliding beneath the continental or oceanic lithosphere of another plate due to the higher density of the oceanic lithosphere. That is, the subducted lithosphere is always oceanic while the overriding lithosphere may or may not be oceanic
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Burma Plate
The Burma Plate
Burma Plate
is a minor tectonic plate or microplate located in Southeast Asia, sometimes considered a part of the larger Eurasian Plate. The Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, and northwestern Sumatra are located on the plate. This island arc separates the Andaman Sea from the main Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the west. To its east lies the Sunda Plate, from which it is separated along a transform boundary, running in a rough north-south line through the Andaman Sea
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Seismograph
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.[1] Records of seismic waves allow seismologists to map the interior of the Earth
Earth
and to locate and measure the size of events like these.Contents1 Basic principles 2 Nomenclature 3 History3.1 Ancient era 3.2 Modern designs4 Modern instruments4.1 Teleseismometers 4.2 Strong-motion seismometers 4.3 Other forms 4.4 Interconnected seismometers5 Recording 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBasic principles[edit] A simple seismometer, sensitive to up-down motions of the Earth, is like a weight hanging from a spring, both suspended from a frame that moves along with any motion detected. The relative motion between the weight (called the mass) and the frame provides a measurement of the vertical ground motion
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Alaska
Coordinates: 64°N 150°W / 64°N 150°W / 64; -150[1]State of AlaskaFlag SealNickname(s): The Last FrontierMotto(s): North to the FutureState song(s): "Alaska's Flag"Official language English, Inupiat, Central Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Aleut, Dena'ina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwich'in, Lower Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Coast TsimshianSpoken languages English 86.3% Alaska Native languages 5.2% Tagalog 3.4% Spanish 2.9% Others 2.2%Demonym AlaskanCapital JuneauLargest city AnchorageArea Ranked 1st • Total 663,268 sq mi (1,717,856 km2) • Width 2,261 miles (3,639 km
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Simeulue
Simeulue
Simeulue
is an island of Indonesia, 150 kilometres (93 mi) off the west coast of Sumatra. Its capital is Sinabang. Simeulue
Simeulue
was once a part of West Aceh
Aceh
Regency but was split off in 1999 and became a separate Simeulue
Simeulue
Regency.Contents1 Demographics 2 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake2.1 Local wisdom 2.2 Tourism3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDemographics[edit] From the ethnic point of view the inhabitants of Simeulue
Simeulue
are similar to the people of neighboring Nias
Nias
Island
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Countries Affected By The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake
This article lists the countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami in alphabetical order – for detailed information about each country affected by the earthquake and tsunami, see their individual articles. Countries with a smaller number of casualties, as well as those that lost citizens who were travelling abroad, are listed further on in the article.Contents1 Countries suffering major casualties and damage 2 Countries suffering some casualties and damage 3 Countries suffering damage only 4 Countries that lost citizens while abroad4.1 A – J 4.2 K – R 4.3 S – Z5 Detection of the tsunami outside the Indian Ocean region 6 References 7 External linksCountries suffering major casualties and damage[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Humanitarian Response To The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake
The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
of a magnitude of 9.3 was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. On 26 December 2004, the earthquake, which struck off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, generated a tsunami that wreaked havoc along much of the rim of the Indian Ocean. Particularly hard-hit were the countries of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
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Scientific Community
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists. It includes many "sub-communities" working on particular scientific fields, and within particular institutions; interdisciplinary and cross-institutional activities are also significant. Objectivity is expected to be achieved by the scientific method. Peer review, through discussion and debate within journals and conferences, assists in this objectivity by maintaining the quality of research methodology and interpretation of results.[1]Contents1 History of scientific communities 2 Membership, status and interactions 3 Speaking for the scientific community3.1 Political controversies4 See also 5 References and external articlesHistory of scientific communities[edit] The eighteenth century had some societies made up of men who studied nature, also known as natural philosophers and natural historians, which included even amateurs
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Timeline Of The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami
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Effect Of The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake On Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
was one of the countries struck by the tsunami resulting from the Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004. On January 3, 2005, Sri Lankan authorities reported 30,196 confirmed deaths[1] Many of the dead were adults and the elderly.[clarification needed] The south and east coasts were worst hit. One and a half million people were displaced from their homes
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Submarine Earthquake
A submarine, undersea, or underwater earthquake is an earthquake that occurs underwater at the bottom of a body of water, especially an ocean. They are the leading cause of tsunamis. The magnitude can be measured scientifically by the use of the moment magnitude scale and the intensity can be assigned using the Mercalli intensity scale. Understanding plate tectonics helps to explain the cause of submarine earthquakes. The Earth's surface or lithosphere comprises tectonic plates which average approximately 50 miles in thickness, and are continuously moving very slowly upon a bed of magma in the asthenosphere and inner mantle. The plates converge upon one another, and one subducts below the other, or, where there is only shear stress, move horizontally past each other (see transform plate boundary below). Little movements called fault creep are minor and not measurable
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Effect Of The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake On India
According to official estimates in India, 10,136 people were killed and hundreds of thousands made homeless when a tsunami triggered by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
near the Indonesian island of Sumatra struck the southern coast on 26 December 2004. The earthquake registered 9.1–9.3 Mw and was the largest in five decades.[1] It was followed by strong aftershocks[2] on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Contents1 Affected states and regions 2 Meteorological and seismic reports 3 Ex gratia payments 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 7 NotesAffected states and regions[edit] This disaster affected a total of fourteen regions.[3] The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands
comprise 572 islands (land masses at low and high tide), of which 38 are inhabited by people from the mainland and indigenous tribes
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Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System
The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Tsunami
Tsunami
Warning System is a tsunami warning system set up to provide warning to inhabitants of nations bordering the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
of approaching tsunamis.Contents1 Background 2 Construction 3 Performance during emergencies 4 References 5 External linksBackground[edit] A warning system for the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
was prompted by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and resulting tsunami, which left some 230,000 people dead or missing. Many analysts claimed that the disaster would have been mitigated if there had been an effective warning system in place, citing the well-established Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami
Tsunami
Warning Center, which operates in the Pacific Ocean. People in some areas would have had more than adequate time to seek safety if they were aware of the impending catastrophe
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