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India Meteorological Department
The India
India
Meteorological
Meteorological
Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in Delhi
Delhi
and operates hundreds of observation stations across India
India
and Antarctica.Regional office are at Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur
Nagpur
and Pune. IMD is also one of the six Regional Specialised Meteorological
Meteorological
Centres of the World Meteorological
Meteorological
Organization
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Ministry (government Department)
A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration.[1] Ministries have a bureaucratic structure.[1] Different states have different numbers and names of ministries,[1] but the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
notes that all states have (often under different names) a Ministry of Interior, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a
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John Eliot (meteorologist)
Sir John Eliot, KCIE (1839–1908), meteorologist, born at Lamesley in Durham on 25 May 1839, was son of Peter Elliott of Lamesley, schoolmaster, by his wife Margaret. He changed the spelling of his surname to Eliot. Matriculating at the rather late age of twenty-six at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1865, he graduated B.A. in 1869 as second wrangler and first Smith's prizeman. Soon elected to a fellowship, he accepted, owing to weak health and with a view to avoiding the climate of England, the professorship of mathematics at the Engineering College at Roorkee in the North-West Provinces, under the Indian government. In 1872 he was transferred to the regular Indian Educational Service as professor of mathematics at the Muir Central College, Allahabad. With that office was combined that of superintendent of the Meteorological Observatory
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British East India Company
The East India
India
Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India
India
Company and informally as John Company,[1] was an English and later British joint-stock company,[2] that was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies"[citation needed] (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China
Qing China
and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent. Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade[citation needed], particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and opium
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Madras Observatory
The Madras Observatory
Madras Observatory
was an astronomical observatory which had its origins in a private observatory set up by William Petrie in 1786 and later moved and managed by the British East India Company
British East India Company
from 1792 in Madras (now known as Chennai). The main purpose for establishing it was to assist in navigation and mapping by recording the latitude and maintaining time standards. In later years the observatory also made observations on stars and geomagnetism. The observatory ran from around 1792 to 1931 and a major work was the production of a comprehensive catalogue of stars. History[edit]The observatory c. 1838The observatory was established due to the efforts of William Petrie, an amateur astronomer who had a small private observatory at Egmore
Egmore
in Madras. Petrie's original observatory was established in 1786 and was made of iron and timber
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Government Of India
Executive:Prime Minister Union Council of Ministers Cabinet Secretary Secretaries: (Defence • Finance
Finance
• Foreign • Home) Civil services All India
India
Services (IAS • IFS/IFoS • IPS)Parliament:
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The Asiatic Society
The Asiatic Society
The Asiatic Society
was founded by civil servant Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir William Jones, Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William
Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William
at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental
Oriental
research. At the time of its foundation, this Society was named as "Asiatick Society". In 1825, the society dropped the antique k without any formal resolution and the Society was renamed as "The Asiatic Society". In 1832 the name was changed to " The Asiatic Society
The Asiatic Society
of Bengal" and again in 1936 it was renamed as "The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal." Finally, on 1 July 1951 the name of the society was changed to its present one
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Henry Piddington
Henry Piddington
Henry Piddington
(7 January 1797 – 7 April 1858) was an English merchant captain who sailed in East India
East India
and China and later settled in Bengal where he worked as a curator of
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Cyclone
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.[1][2] Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure.[3][4] The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale (the synoptic scale). Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale.[5] Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within the smaller mesoscale.[6] Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere
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Famines
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food,[1] caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was generally Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe
Europe
that suffered the most deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 1970s. Some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa
Africa
has been the most affected continent in the world
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Independence Of India
The Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company
East India Company
rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 90 years (1857–1947). The first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took movement in the newly formed Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service (British India)
Indian Civil Service (British India)
examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai
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Edmond Halley
Edmond[1] (or Edmund[2]) Halley, FRS (/ˈɛdmənd ˈhæli/;[3][4] 8 November [O.S. 29 October] 1656 – 25 January 1742 [O.S. 14 January 1741]) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. He was the second Astronomer
Astronomer
Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed. He computed the orbit of Halley's Comet, which was named after him as a result.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Publications and inventions 2.2 Exploration years3 Personal life 4 Named after Edmond Halley 5 Pronunciation and spelling 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Halley was born in Haggerston, in east London. His father, Edmond Halley Sr., came from a Derbyshire
Derbyshire
family and was a wealthy soap-maker in London. As a child, Halley was very interested in mathematics. He studied at St Paul's School, and from 1673 at The Queen's College, Oxford
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Indian Agriculture
The history of Agriculture in India dates back to Indus Valley Civilization Era and even before that in some parts of Southern India.[1] Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 13.7% of the GDP (gross domestic product) in 2013,[2] about 50% of the workforce.[3][4] The economic contribution of agriculture to India's GDP is steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth
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Ozone Layer
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It contains high concentrations of ozone (O3) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in relation to other gases in the stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is about 0.3 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, although its thickness varies seasonally and geographically.[1] The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry
Charles Fabry
and Henri Buisson
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Meteorological Radar
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation. Both types of data can be analyzed to determine the structure of storms and their potential to cause severe weather. During World War II, radar operators discovered that weather was causing echoes on their screen, masking potential enemy targets. Techniques were developed to filter them, but scientists began to study the phenomenon. Soon after the war, surplus radars were used to detect precipitation. Since then, weather radar has evolved on its own and is now used by national weather services, research departments in universities, and in television newscasts
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KALPANA-1
Kalpana-1
Kalpana-1
is the first dedicated meteorological satellite launched by Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on 2002-09-12. The satellite is three-axis stabilized and is powered by solar panels, getting up to 550 watts of power. The METSAT bus was used as the basis for the Chandrayaan lunar orbiter mission of 2008.Contents1 History 2 VHRR scanning radiometer 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Originally known as MetSat-1, the satellite was the first launched by the PSLV-C4
PSLV-C4
into the Geostationary orbit
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