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India Geographic Map
Geography
Geography
(from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description"[1]) is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.[2] The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).[3] Geography
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Geography (other)
Geography
Geography
is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. Geography
Geogr

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Pedosphere
The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. It exists at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.[1] The pedosphere is the skin of the Earth
Earth
and only develops when there is a dynamic interaction between the atmosphere (air in and above the soil), biosphere (living organisms), lithosphere (unconsolidated regolith and consolidated bedrock) and the hydrosphere (water in, on and below the soil). The pedosphere is the foundation of terrestrial life on this planet
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William Hughes (geographer)
William Hughes FRGS (1818 – 21 May 1876) was an English geographer, mapmaker and author. He was Professor of Geography at King's College and Queen's College, London and Royal Female Naval School[1] He was for many years Examiner in Geography to the College of Preceptors[1] Some of his publications were later revised by Sir Richard Gregory, and also by the writer and geographer John Francon Williams. He was the author of literally dozens of books; books of maps for the classroom, biblical studies and general reference, and editor of a similar number of reference and classroom books. He died at his home, Adelaide Road, St John's Wood, London.[2] Partial Bibliography[edit]Directions for Taking Instructions on Wills 1840[1] Three Students of Grays Inn (novel) 1846[1] The Stamp Duties Act 1850[1] The Origin and Condition of the Australian Colonies Longman & Co. 1852[1] Manual of Mathematical Geography 1852 A Manual of Geography, Physical, Industrial and Political 1852 It's All
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United States National Research Council
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Medicine
(also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific National Academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: (1) as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations (the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering
(NAE), and the National Academy of Medicine
National Academy of Medicine
(NAM)). And (2) as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS
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Built Environment
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It has been defined as "the human-made space in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis."[1] The "built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people including buildings, parks, and transportation systems." In recent years,[when?] public health research has expanded the definition of "built environment" to include healthy food access, community gardens, mental health,[2] "walkability" and "bikeability".[3]Contents1 History 2 Modern built environment 3 Public health 4 Landscape architecture 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea
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Soil
Soil
Soil
is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere.[1] The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Landform
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth
Earth
or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Typical landforms include hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, and valleys, as well as shoreline features such as bays, peninsulas, and seas,[citation needed] including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.Contents1 Physical characteristics 2 Hierarchy of classes 3 Recent developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPhysical characteristics[edit] Landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Gross physical features or landforms include intuitive elements such as berms, mounds, hills, ridges, cliffs, valleys, rivers, peninsulas, volcanoes, and numerous other structural and size-scaled (i.e. ponds vs
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Environmental Geography
Integrated geography
Integrated geography
(also referred to as integrative geography,[1] environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment.[2] These interactions being called coupled human–environment systems. Origins[edit] It requires an understanding of the dynamics of physical geography, as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment (human geography). Thus, to a certain degree, it may be seen as a successor of Physische Anthropogeographie (English: "physical anthropogeography")—a term coined by University of Vienna geographer Albrecht Penck
Albrecht Penck
in 1924[3]—and geographical cultural or human ecology (Harlan H. Barrows 1923)
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Lithosphere
A lithosphere (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid,[1] outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. The study of past and current formations of landscapes is called geomorphology.Contents1 Earth's lithosphere1.1 History of the concept 1.2 Types1.2.1 Oceanic lithosphere 1.2.2 Subducted lithosphere2 Mantle xenoliths 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarth's lithosphere Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates
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Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,[2] 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere
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Flora
Flora
Flora
is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Sometimes bacteria and fungi are also referred to as flora, as in the terms gut flora or skin flora.[1][2][3]Contents1 Etymology 2 Flora
Flora
classifications 3 Documentation of floras 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "flora" comes from the Latin
Latin
name of Flora, the goddess of plants, flowers, and fertility in Roman mythology.[4][citation needed] The distinction between vegetation (the general appearance of a community) and flora (the taxonomic composition of a community) was first made by Jules Thurmann
Jules Thurmann
(1849)
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Gazetteer
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.[1] It typically contains information concerning the geographical makeup, social statistics and physical features of a country, region, or continent. Content of a gazetteer can include a subject's location, dimensions of peaks and waterways, population, gross domestic product and literacy rate. This information is generally divided into topics with entries listed in alphabetical order. Ancient Greek gazetteers are known to have existed since the Hellenistic era. The first known Chinese gazetteer was released by the first century, and with the age of print media in China
China
by the ninth century, the Chinese gentry became invested in producing gazetteers for their local areas as a source of information as well as local pride
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Fauna
Fauna
Fauna
is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
fauna" or the " Burgess Shale
Burgess Shale
fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils
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