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Independent Clauses
An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate and makes sense by itself. Independent clauses can be joined by using a semicolon or by using a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet, etc.).Contents1 Examples 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksExamples[edit] In the following example sentences, independent clauses are underlined and conjunctions are in bold. Single independent clauses:I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone. My favourite flavour is chocolate.Multiple independent clauses:I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone; my favorite flavor is chocolate. I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone, so let's go to the shop.See also[edit]Comma splice Conditional sentence Dependent clause Relative clause Run-on sentence Sentence clause structureReferences[edit]Rozakis, Laurie (2003)
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Clause
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.[1] A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate,[2] the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses). A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (matrix clauses, independent clauses) are those that can stand alone as a sentence
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Subject (grammar)
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'. Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the 'topic' of the sentence. These definitions seem clear enough for simple sentences such as the above, but as will be shown in the article below, problems in defining the subject arise when an attempt is made to extend the definitions to more complex sentences and to languages other than English
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Predicate (grammar)
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.[2] The competition between these two concepts has generated confusion concerning the use of the term predicate in theories of grammar. This article considers both of these notions. The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like. The second notion was derived from work in predicate calculus (predicate logic, first order logic) and is prominent in modern theories of syntax and grammar
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Conjunction (grammar)
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated CONJ or CNJ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction. The term discourse marker is mostly used for conjunctions joining sentences. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each language. In general, a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle and it may or may not stand between the items in a conjunction. The definition may also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same function, e.g. "as well as", "provided that". A simple literary example of a conjunction: "the truth of nature, and the power of giving interest"
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Sentence (linguistics)
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. In functional linguistics, a sentence is a unit of written texts delimited by graphological features such as upper case letters and markers such as periods, question marks, and exclamation marks
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Comma Splice
In English grammar, a comma splice or comma fault[1][2] is the use of a comma to join two independent clauses. For example:It is nearly half past five, we cannot reach town before dark.[a]The comma splice is sometimes used in literary writing to convey a particular mood of informality. Otherwise, it is usually considered a style error in English. Most authorities on English usage consider comma splices appropriate in limited situations, such as in informal writing or with short similar phrases.Contents1 Overview 2 In literature 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksOverview[edit] Comma splices are rare in most published writing, but are common for inexperienced writers of English.[1][4] The original 1918 edition of The Elements of Style
The Elements of Style
by William Strunk Jr
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Conditional Sentence
Conditional sentences are sentences expressing factual implications, or hypothetical situations and their consequences. They are so called because the validity of the main clause of the sentence is conditional on the existence of certain circumstances, which may be expressed in a dependent clause or may be understood from the context. A full conditional sentence (one which expresses the condition as well as its consequences) therefore contains two clauses: the dependent clause expressing the condition, called the protasis; and the main clause expressing the consequence, called the apodosis.[1] An example of such a sentence (in English) is the following:If it rains, the picnic will be cancelled.Here the condition is expressed by the clause "If it rains", this being the protasis, while the consequence is expressed by "the picnic will be cancelled", this being the apodosis
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Dependent Clause
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause can either modify an adjacent clause or serve as a component of an independent clause. Some grammarians use the term subordinate clause as a synonym for dependent clause. Others use subordinate clause to refer only to adverbial dependent clauses. The different types of dependent clauses include content clauses (noun clauses), relative (adjectival) clauses, and adverbial clauses.Contents1 Dependent words 2 Content clause 3 Relative (adjectival) clause3.1 Punctuation3.1.1 English punctuation4 Adverbial clause 5 Dependent clauses and sentence structure 6 Non-finite dependent clauses 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDependent words[edit] In Indo-European languages, a dependent clause usually begins with a dependent word. One kind of dependent word is a subordinating conjunction
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Relative Clause
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and the antecedent on which it depends.[1] Typically, a relative clause modifies a noun or noun phrase,[1] and uses some grammatical device to indicate that one of the arguments within the relative clause has the same referent as that noun or noun phrase. For example, in the sentence I met a man who wasn't there, the subordinate clause who wasn't there is a relative clause, since it modifies the noun man, and uses the pronoun who to indicate that the same "man" is referred to within the subordinate clause (in this case, as its subject). In many European languages, relative clauses are introduced by a special class of pronouns called relative pronouns,[2] such as who in the example just given
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Syntax
In linguistics, syntax (/ˈsɪntæks/[1][2]) is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes.[3] The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages. In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic
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Simple Sentence
In grammar, sentence clause structure is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure. Such division is an element of traditional grammar.Contents1 Types 2 Simple sentences 3 Compound sentences 4 Complex and compound-complex sentences 5 Incomplete sentence 6 Run-on (fused) sentences 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTypes[edit] A simple sentence consists of only one clause. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. A complex sentence has at least one independent clause plus at least one dependent clause.[1] A set of words with no independent clause may be an incomplete sentence, also called a sentence fragment. A sentence consisting of at least one dependent clauses and at least two independent clauses may be called a complex-compound sentence or compound-complex sentence. Sentence 1 is an example of a simple sentence
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Run-on Sentence
In grammar, sentence clause structure is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure. Such division is an element of traditional grammar.Contents1 Types 2 Simple sentences 3 Compound sentences 4 Complex and compound-complex sentences 5 Incomplete sentence 6 Run-on (fused) sentences 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTypes[edit] A simple sentence consists of only one clause. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. A complex sentence has at least one independent clause plus at least one dependent clause.[1] A set of words with no independent clause may be an incomplete sentence, also called a sentence fragment. A sentence consisting of at least one dependent clauses and at least two independent clauses may be called a complex-compound sentence or compound-complex sentence. Sentence 1 is an example of a simple sentence
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Sentence Clause Structure
In grammar, sentence clause structure is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure. Such division is an element of traditional grammar.Contents1 Types 2 Simple sentences 3 Compound sentences 4 Complex and compound-complex sentences 5 Incomplete sentence 6 Run-on (fused) sentences 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTypes[edit] A simple sentence consists of only one clause. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. A complex sentence has at least one independent clause plus at least one dependent clause.[1] A set of words with no independent clause may be an incomplete sentence, also called a sentence fragment. A sentence consisting of at least one dependent clauses and at least two independent clauses may be called a complex-compound sentence or compound-complex sentence. Sentence 1 is an example of a simple sentence
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