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Incunabula
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe
Europe
before the year 1501. (Importantly, incunabula are not manuscripts.) As of 2014,[update] there are about 30,000 distinct known incunable editions extant
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Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈʔaʊ̯ksbʊʁk] ( listen); Austro-Bavarian: Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. It was a Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
for over 500 years, and is notable for the Augsburg
Augsburg
Confession. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg
Augsburg
is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg
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Scholar
The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching, research, and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, and is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, and can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods.[1]Contents1 Methods 2 Ethical issues 3 See also 4 ReferencesMethods[edit] Originally started to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval theology, scholasticism is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning
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Valerius Maximus
Valerius Maximus
Valerius Maximus
(/vəˈlɪəriəs ˈmæksɪməs/) was a Latin
Latin
writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. He worked during the reign of Tiberius
Tiberius
(14 AD to 37 AD).Contents1 Biography 2 Style 3 Legacy 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Nothing is known of his life except that his family was poor and undistinguished, and that he owed everything to Sextus Pompeius (consul AD 14), proconsul of Asia, whom he accompanied to the East in 27. Pompeius was the center of a literary circle to which Ovid belonged; he was also an intimate friend of the most literary prince of the imperial family, Germanicus.[1] His attitude towards the imperial household has often been misunderstood, and he has been represented as a mean flatterer of the same type as Martial
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Typography
Typography
Typography
is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning[1]). The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and appearance of the letters, numbers, and symbols created by the process
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Typeface
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, style, condensation, width, slant, italicization, ornamentation, and designer or foundry (and formerly size, in metal fonts). For example, "ITC Garamond
Garamond
Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond
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Writing
Writing
Writing
is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing
Writing
is not a language, but a tool used to make languages be read. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar, and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. The result of writing is called text, and the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence, record keeping and diary
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Blackletter
Blackletter
Blackletter
(sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.[1] It continued to be used for the Danish language
Danish language
until 1875,[2] and for German until the 20th century. Fraktur
Fraktur
is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of blackletter faces is incorrectly referred to as Fraktur
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William Caxton
Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres Brut ChroniclesPrinter's mark of William Caxton, 1478. A variant of the merchant's mark William Caxton
William Caxton
(c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer. He is thought to be the first person to introduce a printing press into England, in 1476, and was the first English retailer of printed books. His parentage and date of birth are both not known for certain, but he may have been born between 1415 and 1424, in the Weald
Weald
or wood land of Kent, perhaps in Hadlow
Hadlow
or Tenterden. In 1438 he was apprenticed to Robert Large, a wealthy London silk mercer. Shortly after the death of Large, Caxton moved to Bruges
Bruges
in Belgium. Caxton was settled in Bruges
Bruges
by 1450
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Calligraphy
Calligraphy
Calligraphy
(from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, or other writing instruments.[1]:17 A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner".[1]:18 Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable.[1][page needed] Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both.[2][3][4][5] Calligraphy
Calligraphy
continues flourishing in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, announcements, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, and memorial documents
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Renaissance Humanism
Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe
Western Europe
in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is contemporary to that period — Renaissance
Renaissance
(rinascimento, "rebirth") and "humanist" (whence modern humanism; also Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism).[1] Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism.[2] Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions
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Ecclesiastic
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership
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Arundel Manuscripts
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.[1] More recently, it is understood to be an author's written, typed, or word-processed copy of a work, as distinguished from the print of the same.[2] Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in book form, scrolls or in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations.Contents1 Cultural background 2 Modern variations 3 European manuscript history 4 A sample of common genres of manuscripts4.1 Bibles 4.2 Book of hours 4.3 Liturgical books and calendars5 Scripts 6 Parts 7 Major U.S
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Lawyers
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, barrister, attorney, counselor, solicitor, not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.[1] Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, and so it can be treated here in only the most general terms.[2][3]Contents1 Terminology 2 Responsibilities2.1 Oral argument in the courts 2.2 Research and drafting of court papers 2.3 Advocacy (written and oral) in administrative hearings 2.4 Client intake and counseling (with regard to pending litigation) 2.5 Legal advice 2.6 Protecting intellectual property 2.7 Negotiating and drafting contracts 2.8 Conveyancing 2.9 Carrying out the intent of the deceased 2.10 Prosecution and defense of criminal suspects3 Educati
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Nobles
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Profession
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.[1] The term is a truncation of the term "liberal profession", which is, in turn, an Anglicization of the French term "profession libérale"
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