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Imperial Chinese Missions To Ryūkyū Kingdom
Imperial Chinese missions to the Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
were diplomatic missions which were intermittently sent by the Yuan, Ming and Qing emperors to Shuri, Okinawa
Shuri, Okinawa
in the Ryukyu Islands. These diplomatic contacts were within the Sinocentric system of bilateral and multinational relationships in East Asia. Some missions were sent to perform investiture ceremonies for the King of Ryukyu, formally acknowledging him as King on behalf of the Chinese Imperial Court, and as a tributary subordinate.Contents1 The Envoys in Shuri 2 Timeline of Missions 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further readingThe Envoys in Shuri[edit] Shuri was the royal capital of the Ryukyu Kingdom. It is today part of the city of Naha, Okinawa. Upon the accession of a new king, the news was generally communicated to the Chinese capital, along with a petition for investiture, by a formal Ryukyuan tribute mission
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Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(/juːˈɑːn/;[4] Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan[5] (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Yehe Yuan Ulus[b]), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin
Borjigin
clan. It followed the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and was succeeded by the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols
Mongols
had ruled territories including modern-day North China
China
for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style,[6] and the conquest was not complete until 1279
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Jiajing Emperor
The Jiajing Emperor
Jiajing Emperor
(Chinese: 嘉靖; pinyin: Jiājìng; Wade–Giles: Chia-ching; 16 September 1507 – 23 January 1567) was the 12th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan
Zhu Youyuan
(1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor
Chenghua Emperor
(r. 1465–1487) and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao
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Shō Shitatsu
Shō Shitatsu (尚 思達, 1408–1449) was king of Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
who ruled from 1444 to 1449
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Jingtai Emperor
The Jingtai Emperor (景泰 IPA: [tɕìŋtʰâɪ]) (21 September 1428 – 14 March 1457), born Zhu Qiyu, was Emperor of China
Emperor of China
from 1449 to 1457. The second son of the Xuande Emperor, he was selected in 1449 to succeed his older brother, the Zhengtong Emperor, when the latter was captured by Mongols following the Tumu Crisis. He reigned for 8 years before being removed from the throne by his brother, who was restored as the Tianshun Emperor
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Shō Kinpuku
Shō Kinpuku (尚 金福, Shō Kinpuku, 1398–1453) was a king of the Ryukyu Kingdom, the 5th of the line of the First Shō Dynasty. Shō Kinpuku succeeded his nephew, Shō Shitatsu, in 1449. A one-kilometer-long dam, which known as Chōkō Dam (長虹堤, Chōkōtei), was built in 1451 by Kaiki (懐機 Huái Jī), a somewhat mysterious figure from Ming China. The dam was built from Naha
Naha
harbor to Tomari harbor, connecting many tiny isles. King Shō Kinpuku died in 1453, a succession dispute erupted between the king's son Shiro (志魯) and his younger brother Furi (布里). Shuri Castle
Shuri Castle
was burned down in the conflict, and both of them died in the incident
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Shō Taikyū
Shō Taikyū (尚 泰久, c. 1415–1460,[1] r. 1454–1460[2]) was a king of the Ryukyu Kingdom, the sixth of the line of the first Shō Dynasty. His reign saw the construction of many Buddhist temples, and the casting of the "Bridge of Nations" Bell (万国津梁の鐘, Bankoku shinryō no kane).Contents1 Life and reign 2 Family 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife and reign[edit] Shō Taikyū was the seventh son of Shō Hashi, founder of the Ryukyu Kingdom and of the Shō Dynasty. In 1453, he was named Prince of Goeku, and given Goeku magiri (today part of Okinawa City) as his domain.[2] When King Shō Kinpuku died in 1453, a succession dispute erupted between the king's son Shiro (志魯) and his younger brother Furi (布里)
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Chenghua Emperor
The Chenghua Emperor
Chenghua Emperor
(Chinese: 成化; pinyin: Chénghuà; 9 December 1447 – 9 September 1487), born Zhu Jianshen, was the ninth Emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in China, between 1464 and 1487. His era name "Chenghua" means "accomplished change".Contents1 Childhood 2 Reign as Emperor 3 Lady Wan 4 Legacy 5 Family5.1 Spouses5.1.1 Empresses 5.1.2 Imperial Noble Consorts 5.1.3 Consorts5.2 Issue5.2.1 Sons 5.2.2 Daughters6 Ancestry 7 See also 8 Notes 9 SourcesChildhood[edit] Zhu Jianshen was a son of the Zhengtong Emperor. He was only two years old when his father was captured by the Oirat Mongols and held captive in 1449. After that his uncle, the Jingtai Emperor, took over whilst his father was put under house arrest for almost seven years
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Shō Toku
Shō Toku (尚 徳, Shō Toku, 1441–1469) was the son of Shō Taikyū and last king of his dynasty. He came to power as a young man in a kingdom whose treasury had been depleted. He engaged in efforts to conquer islands and took the symbol of Hachiman
Hachiman
as his banner to emphasize his martial spirit. In 1466, he led an invasion on Kikai Island, which strained the Ryukyuan treasury with little benefit.[1] He either died young or was possibly killed by forces within the kingdom as details are somewhat unclear.[2] As is common for rulers who preside over the end of a dynasty moralists portrayed him as cruel, violent, and lacking in virtue.[3] Family[edit]Father = Shō Taikyū Mother = Miyazato Agunshitari-agomoshirare Wife: daughter of Gushikawa Aji Concubine: daughter of Yabiku Aji Children:Sho Shasiki Sho Urasoe Sho Daiyako, descendant was Minshikameya Family Sho KobanReferences[edit]^ Turnbull, Stephen
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Hongzhi Emperor
The Hongzhi Emperor
Hongzhi Emperor
(Chinese: 弘治; pinyin: Hóngzhì) (30 July 1470 – 9 June 1505) was the tenth emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in China between 1487 and 1505. Born Zhu Youcheng[1][2], he was the eldest surviving son of the Chenghua Emperor
Chenghua Emperor
and his reign as emperor of China
China
is called the "Hongzhi Silver Age". His era name, "Hongzhi", means "great government." A peace-loving emperor, the Hongzhi Emperor also had only one empress and no concubines, granting him the distinction of being the sole perpetually monogamous emperor in Chinese history
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Shō En
Shō En
Shō En
(尚圓)(1415–1476, r. 1470–1476) was a king of the Ryukyu Kingdom, the founder of the Second Shō Dynasty. Prior to becoming king, he was known as Kanamaru (金丸).Contents1 Early life and rise to power 2 Reign 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesEarly life and rise to power[edit] Kanamaru was born into a family of peasant farmers on Izena Island,[1][2] a tiny island which lies off the northwestern coast of Okinawa Island
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Shō Shin
Shō Shin
Shō Shin
(尚眞, 1465–1526; r. 1477–1526) was a king of the Ryukyu Kingdom, the third of the line of the Second Shō Dynasty. Shō Shin's long reign has been described as "the Great Days of Chūzan", a period of great peace and relative prosperity. He was the son of Shō En, the founder of the dynasty, by Yosoidon, Shō En's second wife, often referred to as the queen mother. He succeeded his uncle, Shō Sen'i, who was forced to abdicate in his favor.Contents1 Reign 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesReign[edit] Much of the foundational organization of the kingdom's administration and economy is traced back to developments which occurred during Shō Shin's reign. As government became more institutionalized and organized, the aji (按司, local lords) gradually lost power and independence, becoming more closely tied to the central government at Shuri
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Shō Sei
Shō Sei (尚清, 1497–1555) was king of the Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
from 1526 to 1555.[1] He was the fifth son of King Shō Shin, who he succeeded. Shō Sei suppressed a rebellion on Amami Ōshima
Amami Ōshima
in 1537, and took steps to improve defenses against wakō that same year. Shō Sei died in 1555, and was succeeded by his second son Shō Gen. See also[edit]List of monarchs of Ryukyu Islands Imperial Chinese missions to Ryukyu KingdomNotes[edit]^ Kerr, George H. (2000). Okinawa: The History of an Island People, pp. 115–116., p. 115, at Google BooksReferences[edit]Kerr, George H. (1965). Okinawa, the History of an Island People. Rutland, Vermont: C.E. Tuttle Co. OCLC 39242121 Smits, Gregory. (1999). Visions of Ryukyu: Identity and Ideology in Early-Modern Thought and Politics, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press
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Zhengtong Emperor
Zhu Qizhen (Chinese: 朱祁鎮; 29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth emperor of the Ming dynasty. He ascended the throne as the Zhengtong Emperor (Chinese: 正統; pinyin: Zhèngtǒng; literally: "right governance") in 1435, but was forced to abdicate in 1449, in favour of his younger brother the Jingtai Emperor, after being captured by the Mongols during the Tumu Crisis
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Shō Gen
Shō Gen
Shō Gen
(尚元, 1528–1572) was king of the Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
from 1556 to 1572.[1] He was called "Gen, the mute."[2] the king required considerable support from the Sanshikan (Council of Three), the chief council of royal advisors. His reign marked the beginning of the Council's demonstration of significantly greater effectiveness and efficiency than previously. Shō Gen
Shō Gen
received his official investiture from the Ming Court in 1562, and received emissaries from the Shimazu clan
Shimazu clan
of the Japanese province of Satsuma in 1570 and 1572. The Shimazu wished to establish some control over the Ryukyus, making them either a tributary or a vassal state
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