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Immunoglobulin E
Immunoglobulin
Immunoglobulin
E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is synthesised by plasma cells. Monomers of IgE consist of two heavy chains (ε chain) and two light chains, with the ε chain containing 4 Ig-like constant domains (Cε1-Cε4).[1] IgE's main function is immunity to parasites such as helminths[2] like Schistosoma mansoni, Trichinella spiralis, and Fasciola hepatica.[3][4][5] IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum.[6] IgE also has an essential role in type I hypersensitivity,[7] which manifests in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, most types of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, and specific types of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis
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Nematode
(see text)SynonymsNematodes Burmeister, 1837 Nematoidea
Nematoidea
sensu stricto Cobb, 1919 Nemates Cobb, 1919 Nemata Cobb, 1919 emend.The nematodes (UK: /ˈnɛmətoʊdz/, US: /ˈniːməˌtoʊdz/) or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).[2][3] They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments
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FcεRII
4KI1, 1T8C, 1T8D, 2H2R, 2H2T, 4EZM, 4G96, 4G9A, 4GI0, 4GJ0, 4GJX, 4GK1, 4GKO, 4J6J, 4J6K, 4J6L, 4J6M, 4J6N, 4J6P, 4J6QIdentifiersAliases FCER2, BLAST-2, CD23, CD23A, CLEC4J, FCE2, IGEBF, Fc fragment of IgE receptor IIExternal IDs OMIM: 151445 MGI: 95497 HomoloGene: 1517 GeneCards: FCER2Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
19 (human)[1]Band 19p13.2 Start 7,688,758 bp[1]End 7,702,146 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr.
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Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
(/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ ( listen)[8][9]) is a state of the United States
United States
encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau
Plateau
and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th largest geographically and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado
Colorado
was 5,540,545 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 10.17% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[10] The state was named for the Colorado
Colorado
River, which Spanish travelers named the Río Colorado
Colorado
for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains
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Uppsala
Uppsala
Uppsala
(pronounced [²ɵpːsɑːla] ( listen); older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County
Uppsala County
and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Malmö. It had 149,245 inhabitants in 2015.[1] Located 71 km (44 mi) north of the capital Stockholm, it is also the seat of Uppsala
Uppsala
Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala
Uppsala
has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E /
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Fc Receptor
An Fc receptor
Fc receptor
is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system. Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region. Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
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Basophil
Basophils are a type of white blood cells. Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells.[2] However, they are the largest type of granulocyte. They are responsible for inflammatory reactions during immune response, as well as in the formation of acute and chronic allergic diseases, including anaphylaxis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever.[3] They can perform phagocytosis (cell eating), produce histamine and serotonin that induce inflammation, and heparin that prevents blood clotting[4], although there are less than that found in Mast cell
Mast cell
granules[5]
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Eosinophil
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates.[citation needed] Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma
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Monocyte
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell. They are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. As a part of the vertebrate innate immune system monocytes also influence the process of adaptive immunity. There are at least three subclasses of monocytes in human blood based on their phenotypic receptors.Contents1 Structure1.1 Subpopulations2 Development2.1 Dendritic cells3 Function 4 Clinical significance4.1 Monocytosis 4.2 Monocytopenia 4.3 Blood
Blood
content5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] Monocytes are amoeboid in appearance, and have a granulated cytoplasm.[1] Containing unilobar nuclei, these cells are one of the types of mononuclear leukocytes which shelter azurophil granules
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Macrophage
Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós) = large, φαγείν (phageín) = to eat[1]) are a type of white blood cell, of the immune system, that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the type of proteins specific to healthy body cells on its surface[2] in a process called phagocytosis. These large phagocytes are found in essentially all tissues,[3] where they patrol for potential pathogens by amoeboid movement. They take various forms (with various names) throughout the body (e.g., histiocytes, Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, microglia, and others), but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate immunity) and also help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity) by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes
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Platelet
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (thromb- + -cyte, "blood clot cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.[1] Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes[2] of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures,[3][4] 2–3 µm in greatest diameter.[5] Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.[6]The ligands, denoted by letter L, signal for platelets (P) to migrate towards the wound (Site A). As more platelets gather around the opening, they produce more ligands to amplify the response
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Basophil Granulocyte
Basophils are a type of white blood cells. Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells.[2] However, they are the largest type of granulocyte. They are responsible for inflammatory reactions during immune response, as well as in the formation of acute and chronic allergic diseases, including anaphylaxis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever.[3] They can perform phagocytosis (cell eating), produce histamine and serotonin that induce inflammation, and heparin that prevents blood clotting[4], although there are less than that found in Mast cell
Mast cell
granules[5]
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Adaptive Immune Response
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system). Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components. Unlike the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system is highly specific to a particular pathogen
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Dendritic Cells
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. They can also be found in an immature state in the blood. Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. At certain development stages they grow branched projections, the dendrites that give the cell its name (δένδρον or déndron being Greek for "tree")
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Antigen
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.[1] Sometimes antigens are part of the host itself in an autoimmune disease.[2] Antigens
Antigens
are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody (immune response) is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into contact with it; this allows a precise identification or matching of the antigen and the initiation of a tailored response. The antibody is said to "match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it due to an adaptation performed to a region of the antibody; because of this, many different antibodies are produced, each with specificity to bind a different antigen while sharing the same basic structure
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