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Immunoelectrophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis
is a general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies. All variants of immunoelectrophoresis require immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, reacting with the proteins to be separated or characterized. The methods were developed and used extensively during the second half of the 20th century
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Con A
Concanavalin A
Concanavalin A
(ConA) is a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) originally extracted from the jack-bean, Canavalia
Canavalia
ensiformis. It is a member of the legume lectin family
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Glycan
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC
IUPAC
as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".[1] However, in practice the term glycan may also be used to refer to the carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate, such as a glycoprotein, glycolipid, or a proteoglycan, even if the carbohydrate is only an oligosaccharide.[2] Glycans usually consist solely of O-glycosidic linkages of monosaccharides. For example, cellulose is a glycan (or, to be more specific, a glucan) composed of β-1,4-linked D-glucose, and chitin is a glycan composed of β-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
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Nephelometry
A nephelometer [1] is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid. A nephelometer measures suspended particulates by employing a light beam (source beam) and a light detector set to one side (often 90°) of the source beam. Particle density is then a function of the light reflected into the detector from the particles. To some extent, how much light reflects for a given density of particles is dependent upon properties of the particles such as their shape, color, and reflectivity. Nephelometers are calibrated to a known particulate, then use environmental factors (k-factors) to compensate lighter or darker colored dusts accordingly. K-factor is determined by the user by running the nephelometer next to an air sampling pump and comparing results
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Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique
Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) is a common method for qualitative and quantitative determination of therapeutic and recreational drugs and certain proteins in serum and urine. It is an immunoassay in which a drug or metabolite in the sample competes with an drug/metabolite labelled with an enzyme, to bind to an antibody
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ELISPOT
The Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay is a widely used method for monitoring cellular immune responses in humans and other animals, and has found clinical applications in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and the monitoring of graft tolerance or rejection in transplant patients. The ELISPOT
ELISPOT
technique has proven to be among the most useful means available for monitoring cell-mediated immunity, due to its sensitive and accurate detection of rare antigen-specific T cells
T cells
(or B cells) and its ability to visualize single positive cells within a population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The ELISPOT
ELISPOT
method was developed by Cecil Czerkinsky’s group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1983,[1] for the purpose of detecting antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in a B cell ELISPOT assay, which was a modification of a traditional sandwich ELISA immunoassay
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Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
Chromatin
Chromatin
immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used to investigate the interaction between proteins and DNA
DNA
in the cell. It aims to determine whether specific proteins are associated with specific genomic regions, such as transcription factors on promoters or other DNA
DNA
binding sites, and possibly defining cistromes
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Current Procedural Terminology
The Current Procedural Terminology('CPT) code set is a medical code set maintained by the American Medical Association
American Medical Association
through the CPT Editorial Panel.[1] The CPT code set (copyright protected by the AMA) describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and is designed to communicate uniform information about medical services and procedures among physicians, coders, patients, accreditation organizations, and payers for administrative, financial, and analytical purposes. New editions are released each October.[2] The current version is the CPT 2018. It is available in both a standard edition and a professional edition.[3][4] CPT coding is similar to ICD-9 and ICD-10 coding, except that it identifies the services rendered, rather than the diagnosis on the claim (ICD-10-CM was created for diagnostic coding- it took the place of Volume 3 of the ICD-9)
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Inflammation
Inflammation
Inflammation
(from Latin
Latin
inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants,[1] and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/ PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov
registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Ligands
In coordination chemistry, a ligand[help 1] is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal–ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal–ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known to involve Lewis acidic "ligands".[1][2] Metals and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox
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Affinity Chromatography
Affinity chromatography
Affinity chromatography
is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid. It is a type of chromatographic laboratory technique used for purifying biological molecules within a mixture by exploiting molecular properties. Biological macromolecules, such as enzymes and other proteins, interact with other molecules with high specificity through several different types of bonds and interaction. Such interactions including hydrogen bonding, ionic interaction, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic interaction, and more
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Ligand
In coordination chemistry, a ligand[help 1] is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal–ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal–ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known to involve Lewis acidic "ligands".[1][2] Metals and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox
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