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Imam Reza Shrine
The Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine (Persian: حرم امام رضا‎) in Mashhad, Iran
Iran
is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam
Imam
Reza, the eighth Imam
Imam
of Twelver Shiites. It is the largest mosque in the world by area
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Safavid
The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(/ˈsɑːfəvɪd/; Persian: دودمان صفوی‎ Dudmān e Safavi[24]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.[25] The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the Gunpowder Empires.[26] They ruled one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Iran,[27][28][29][30] and established the Twelver
Twelver
school of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the official religion of the empire,[31] marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
had its origin in the Safaviyya
Safaviyya
Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil
Ardabil
in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
region
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Harun Al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(/hɑːˈruːnɑːlrɑːˈʃiːd/ Arabic: هَارُون الرَشِيد‎ Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri)[1] was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign
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Humayd Ibn Qahtaba
Humayd ibn Qahtaba ibn Shabib al-Ta'i was a senior military leader in the early Abbasid Caliphate. Biography[edit] Humayd was the son of Qahtaba ibn Shabib al-Ta'i, who along with Abu Muslim led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad Caliphate. Along with his brother Hasan, Humayd was active in the Abbasid cause in Khurasan during the years before the Revolution, serving as a deputy naqib.[1] After the Revolution, Humayd attached himself to the governor of Syria, Abdallah ibn Ali, and even joined him when he rebelled against the Caliph al-Mansur (r. 754–775) in 754. He soon regretted his decision, however, and escaped Abdallah's camp before his final defeat.[1][2] Nevertheless, he was soon entrusted with governorships by Mansur, first in the Jazira (754/55), where he faced a determined Kharijite rebellion, and then in Egypt (759/61).[1][2] In 762/63 he served under Isa ibn Musa in the suppression of the rebellion of Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya
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Sanabad
Sanabad (Persian: سناباد‎, also Romanized as Sanābād)[1] is a village in Barzavand Rural District, in the Central District of Ardestan County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 15, in 9 families.[2] References[edit]^ Iran Villages List at gospelgo.com ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Mahmud Of Ghazni
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (Persian: یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین‎), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. He conquered the eastern Iranian lands, modern Afghanistan, and the northwestern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
(modern Pakistan) from 997 to his death in 1030
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Tus, Iran
Tus (Persian: توس‬‎ or طوس‬ Tus or Tuws), also spelled as Tous, Toos or Tūs, is an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province
in Iran
Iran
near Mashhad. To the ancient Greeks, it was known as Susia (Ancient Greek: Σούσια). It was captured by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE
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Radkan, Razavi Khorasan
Radkan (Persian: رادكان‎, also Romanized as Rādkān and Rādekān; also known as Rādkāh)[1] is a village in Radkan Rural District, in the Central District of Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,268, in 624 families.[2] References[edit]^ Radkan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3080571" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Zoroastrians
Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna (Persian: مَزدَیَسنا یا دین زرتشتی), is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world".[1] Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster
Zoroaster
(or Zarathustra),[2] it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda
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Sultan Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
(Persian: احمد سنجر; full name: Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
ibn Malik-Shah) (b. 1085 – d. 8 May 1157) was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118[1] when he became the Sultan
Sultan
of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled as until his death in 1157.Contents1 Biography 2 Death and legacy 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksBiography[edit] Sanjar was born in ca. 1086 in Sinjar, a town situated in the borderland between Syria and the al-Jazira. Although primary sources state that he was named after his birthplace (Rāvandi, p. 185; Ebn al-Jawzi, XVIII, p
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Al-Ma'mun
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (Arabic: أبو العباس المأمون‎; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. He succeeded his brother al-Amin after a civil war, and was also known for his role in the Mu'tazilism
Mu'tazilism
controversy, and the resumption of large-scale warfare with the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire.Contents1 Birth 2 Abbasid
Abbasid
civil war 3 Internal strife 4 After arrival in Baghdad 5 Wars with Byzantium 6 Al-Ma'mun's reign 7 Personal characteristics 8 Death 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksBirth[edit] The future al-Ma'mun was born in Baghdad
Baghdad
on the night of the 13 to 14 September 786 CE to Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
and his concubine Marajil, from Badghis
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
xwarāsān, Persian: خراسان‎ Ḫurāsān  listen (help·info)), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise")[1] and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal
Jibal
or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sindh.[2] During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories
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Ghaznevid
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویان‎ ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate[10] Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[11] at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.[12][13][14] The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan.[15] Although the dynasty was of Central Asian Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits[16][17][18][19] and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty".[20] S
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Sebuktigin
Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (Persian: ابو منصور سبکتگین‬‎) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D.[3] In Turkic the name means beloved prince.[4] Sabuktigin lived as a slave during his youth and later married the daughter of his master Alptigin, the man who seized the region of Ghazna (modern Ghazni Province in Afghanistan) in a political fallout for the throne of the Samanids of Bukhara.[5] Although the latter and Sabuktigin still recognized Samanid authority, and it was not until the reign of Sabuktigin's son Mahmud that the rulers of Ghazni became independent.[3][6] When his father-in-law Alptigin died, Sebuktigin became the new ruler and expanded the kingdom after defeating Jayapala to cover the territory as far as the Neelum River in Kashmir and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan.[7]Contents1 Early years 2 M
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Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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