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Ilmenite
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is the titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula FeTiO 3. It is a weakly magnetic black or steel-gray solid. From the commercial perspective, ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium.[4] Ilmenite
Ilmenite
is the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, fabrics, plastics, paper, sunscreen, food and cosmetics.[5]Contents1 Structure and properties 2 Discovery 3 Mineral
Mineral
chemistry 4 Paragenesis 5 Processing and consumption5.1 Alloys6 Feedstock production 7 Lunar ilmenite 8 ReferencesStructure and properties[edit] Ilmenite
Ilmenite
crystallizes in the trigonal system
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Diopside
Diopside
Diopside
is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6. It forms complete solid solution series with hedenbergite (FeCaSi2O6) and augite, and partial solid solutions with orthopyroxene and pigeonite. It forms variably colored, but typically dull green crystals in the monoclinic prismatic class. It has two distinct prismatic cleavages at 87 and 93° typical of the pyroxene series. It has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of six, a Vickers hardness
Vickers hardness
of 7.7 GPa at a load of 0.98 N,[4] and a specific gravity of 3.25 to 3.55. It is transparent to translucent with indices of refraction of nα=1.663–1.699, nβ=1.671–1.705, and nγ=1.693–1.728
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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity
Specific gravity
is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance for liquids is nearly always water at its densest (at 4 °C / 39.2 °F); for gases it is air at room temperature (20°C / 68° F). Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).A US Navy Aviation Boatswain's Mate tests the specific gravity of JP-5 fuelTemperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry
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Igneous Rock
Igneous rock
Igneous rock
(derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition
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Metamorphic Rock
Metamorphic
Metamorphic
rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".[1] The original rock (protolith) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (150 megapascals (1,500 bar))[clarify],[2] causing profound physical or chemical change. The protolith may be a sedimentary, igneous, or existing metamorphic rock. Metamorphic
Metamorphic
rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and form 12% of the Earth's land surface.[3] They are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage (metamorphic facies). They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure, friction and distortion
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Miscibility Gap
A miscibility gap is a region in a phase diagram for a mixture of components where the mixture exists as two or more phases - any region of composition of mixtures where the constituents are not completely miscible. The IUPAC Gold Book defines miscibility gap as "Area within the coexistence curve of an isobaric phase diagram (temperature vs composition) or an isothermal phase diagram (pressure vs composition)."[1] A miscibility gap between isostructural phases may be described as the solvus, a term also used to describe the boundary on a phase diagram between a miscibility gap and other phases.[2] Thermodynamically, miscibility gaps indicate a maxima (e.g
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Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium
Magnesium
is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[4][5] It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems
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Felsic
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.[1] It is contrasted with mafic rocks, which are relatively richer in magnesium and iron. Felsic refers to those rocks rich in silicate minerals, magma, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. They are usually light in color and have specific gravities less than 3. The most common felsic rock is granite. Common felsic minerals include quartz, muscovite, orthoclase, and the sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars.Contents1 Terminology 2 Classification of felsic rocks 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesTerminology[edit] In modern usage, the term acid rock, although sometimes used as a synonym, refers to a high-silica-content (greater than 63% SiO2 by weight) volcanic rock, such as rhyolite. The term was used more broadly in older geologic literature
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Solid Solution
Note 1: The definition “crystal containing a second constituent which fits into and is distributed in the lattice of the host crystal” given in refs.,[1][2] is not general and, thus, is not recommended. Note 2: The expression is to be used to describe a solid phase containing more than one substance when, for convenience, one (or more) of the substances, called the solvent, is treated differently from the other substances, called solutes. Note 3: One or several of the components can be macromolecules
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Cornwall
Cornwall (/ˈkɔːrnwɔːl, -wəl/;[1] Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛrnɔʊ]) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea,[2] to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain. The furthest southwestern point of the island is Land's End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point. Cornwall has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi).[3][4][5][6] The county has been administered since 2009 by the unitary authority, Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall also includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately
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Pleochroism
Pleochroism
Pleochroism
(from Greek πλέων, pléōn, "more" and χρῶμα, khrôma, "colour") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.[1]Contents1 Background 2 In mineralogy and gemology 3 List of pleochroic minerals3.1 Purple and violet 3.2 Blue 3.3 Green 3.4 Yellow 3.5 Brown and orange 3.6 Red and pink4 See also 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] Anisotropic crystals will have optical properties that vary with the direction of light. The direction of the electric field determines the polarization of light, and crystals will respond in different ways if this angle is changed. These kinds of crystals have one or two optical axes
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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High Spin
Spin states when describing transition metal coordination complexes refers to the potential spin configurations of the metal center's d electrons. In many these spin states vary between high-spin and low-spin configurations. These configurations can be understood through the two major models used to describe coordination complexes; crystal field theory and ligand field theory, which is a more advanced version based on molecular orbital theory.[1]Contents1 High-spin vs Low-spin1.1 Octahedral complexes 1.2 Tetrahedral complexes 1.3 Square planar complexes2 Ligand field theory
Ligand field theory
vs Crystal field theory 3 High-spin and low-spin systems3.1 Ionic radii4 ReferencesHigh-spin vs Low-spin[edit] Main article: magnetochemistry Octahedral complexes[edit]Low-spin [Fe(NO2)6]3− crystal field diagramThe Δ splitting of the d orbitals plays an important role in the electron spin state of a coordination complex
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Corundum
Corundum
Corundum
is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al 2O 3) typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.[2][3] It is a rock-forming mineral. It is a naturally transparent material, but can have different colors when impurities are present. These impurities are the presence of transition metals in the crystal structure of corundum.[6] Corundum
Corundum
has two primary gem varieties, ruby and sapphire. Rubies are red due to the presence of chromium, and sapphires exhibit a range of colors depending on what transition metal is present.[6] A rare type of sapphire, padparadscha sapphire, is pink-orange. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word Kurundam, which originates from the Sanskrit word Kuruvinda meaning ruby.[7] Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9.0 on the Mohs scale), it can scratch almost every other mineral
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Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition
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Amphibole
Amphibole
Amphibole
( /ˈæmfɪboʊl/) is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals,[1] composed of double chain SiO 4 tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures. Amphiboles can be green, black, colorless, white, yellow, blue, or brown. The International Mineralogical Association currently classifies amphiboles as a mineral supergroup, within which are two groups and several subgroups.[2]Contents1 Mineralogy1.1 In rocks2 History and etymology 3 Mineral
Mineral
species3.1 Chemical formula 3.2 Descriptions4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesMineralogy[edit] Amphiboles crystallize into two crystal systems, monoclinic and orthorhombic. In chemical composition and general characteristics they are similar to the pyroxenes
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