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Ikuta Shrine
Ikuta Shrine
Ikuta Shrine
(生田神社, Ikuta-jinja) is a Shinto
Shinto
shrine in the Chūō Ward of Kobe, Japan, and is possibly among the oldest shrines in the country.Contents1 History 2 Festivals and events 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] According to Nihon Shoki, it was founded by the Empress Jingū
Empress Jingū
at the beginning of the 3rd century AD to enshrine the kami Wakahirume. It was one of three shrines established at this time; the others are Hirota Shrine, dedicated to Amaterasu, and Nagata Shrine, dedicated to Kotoshiro-nushi (also known as Ebisu). During the Genpei War, parts of the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani
Battle of Ichi-no-Tani
took place in and around this shrine, and are commemorated by markers in the Ikuta forest behind the shrine. The shrine's land was much larger back then, before the city of Kobe
Kobe
was built around it
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Empress Jingū
Empress consort Jingū (神功皇后, Jingū-kōgō), occasionally known as Empress regnant Jingū (神功天皇, Jingū-tennō),[1] was a Japanese empress who ruled beginning in the year 201
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Honden
The honden (本殿, main hall), also called shinden (神殿) or sometimes shōden (昇殿), as in Ise Shrine's case, is the most sacred building at a Shinto shrine, intended purely for the use of the enshrined kami, usually symbolized by a mirror or sometimes by a statue.[1][2] The building is normally in the rear of the shrine and closed to the general public.[3] In front of it usually stands the haiden, or oratory. The haiden is often connected to the honden by a heiden, or hall of offerings.[4] Physically, the honden is the heart of the shrine complex, connected to the rest of the shrine but usually raised above it, and protected from public access by a fence called tamagaki. It usually is relatively small and with a gabled roof. Its doors are usually kept closed, except at religious festivals
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Kagura-den
The kagura-den or kagura-dono (神楽殿, lit. kagura palace), also called maidono (舞殿, dance palace) or buden (舞殿) with reference to the bugaku traditional dance, is the building within a Shinto shrine where the sacred dance (kagura) and music are offered to the kami during ceremonies.[1] It was originally just a temporary stage, first mentioned in a 9th-century text describing a maidono built in front of Hirano Shrine. In about a century it had become a permanent shrine feature, and its use was extended until its function as a worship hall prevailed over the original.[1] It is now used also for weddings and Noh
Noh
plays. Some scholars believe the heiden, or hall of worship, has its origins in the kagura-den. References[edit]^ a b Maidono, JAANUS, accessed on July 12, 2010Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kagura-den.This article relating to Shinto
Shinto
is a stub
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Setsumatsusha
Sessha (摂社, auxiliary shrine) and massha (末社, undershrine), also called eda-miya (枝宮, branch shrines)[1] (collectively known as setsumatsusha (摂末社)[2][note 1]) are small or miniature shrines entrusted to the care of a larger shrine, generally due to some deep connection with the enshrined kami.[3] The two terms used to have legally different meanings, but are today synonyms. Setsumatsusha
Setsumatsusha
can lie either inside (境内摂末社, keidai setsumatsusha) or outside (境外摂末社, keigai setsumassha) the main shrine's premises. Setsumatsusha
Setsumatsusha
are usually 1x1 ken in size. They can however be as small as beehives or relatively large and have 1x2, 1x3 or even, in one case, 1x7 bays.[4]Contents1 History 2 Architectural style 3 Architectural examples 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The practice of building sessha and massha shrines within a jinja predates written history
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Chinjusha
In Japan, a chinjusha (鎮守社•鎮社, or tutelary shrine) is a Shinto shrine
Shinto shrine
which enshrines a tutelary kami (鎮守神, chinjugami); that is, a patron spirit that protects a given area, village, building or a Buddhist temple.[1][2][3] The Imperial Palace has its own tutelary shrine dedicated to the 21 guardian gods of Ise Shrine. Tutelary shrines are usually very small, but there is a range in size, and the great Hiyoshi Taisha
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Chigi (architecture)
Chigi (千木, 鎮木, 知木, 知疑), Okichigi (置千木) or Higi (氷木) are forked roof finials found in Japanese and Shinto Architecture. Chigi predate Buddhist influence and are an architectural element endemic to Japan.[1] They are an important aesthetic aspect of Shinto
Shinto
shrines, where they are often paired with katsuogi, another type of roof ornamentation
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Hidden Roof
The hidden roof (野屋根, noyane)[note 1] is a type of roof widely used in Japan both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. It is composed of a true roof above and a second roof beneath,[1] permitting an outer roof of steep pitch to have eaves of shallow pitch, jutting widely from the walls but without overhanging them.[2] The second roof is visible only from under the eaves and is therefore called a "hidden roof" (giving its name to the whole structure) while the first roof is externally visible and is called an "exposed roof" in English and "cosmetic roof" (化粧屋根, keshōyane) in Japanese
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Nakazonae
Nakazonae
Nakazonae
(中備・中具) are decorative intercolumnar struts installed in the intervals between bracket complexes (tokyō) at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan.[1] In origin they were necessary to help support the roof; however, at the end of the 10th century the invention of the hidden roof[note 1] made them superfluous.[2] They remained in use, albeit in a purely decorative role, and are typical of the Wayō
Wayō
style. The Zenshūyō style used by Zen
Zen
temples has instead bracket complexes even between posts.Contents1 Kentozuka1.1 Minozuka2 Hana-hijiki 3 Warizuka 4 Kaerumata 5 Types of nakazonae 6 Notes 7 ReferencesKentozuka[edit] The simplest of these struts are the kentozuka (間斗束, lit. interval block strut, see photo above) composed of a short post and a bearing block.[3] Minozuka[edit] Similar to the kentozuka is the fan-shaped strut called minozuka (蓑束, lit
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Kairō
The kairō (回廊 or 廻廊), bu (廡), sōrō or horō (歩廊) is the Japanese version of a cloister, a covered corridor originally built around the most sacred area of a Buddhist temple, a zone which contained the Kondō and the pagoda. Nowadays it can be found also at Shinto shrines and at shinden-zukuri aristocratic residences.[1] The kairō and the rōmon were among the most important among the garan elements which appeared during the Heian period.[2] The first surrounded the holiest part of the garan, while the second was its main exit. Neither was originally characteristic of Shinto shrines, but in time they often came to replace the traditional shrine surrounding fence called tamagaki.[2] The earliest example of a kairō/rōmon complex can be found at Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū, a shrine now but a former shrine-temple (神宮寺).[3] The rōmon is believed to have been built in 886, and the kairō roughly at the same time
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Karahafu
The karahafu (kara-hafu) (唐破風) is a type of gable with a style peculiar to Japan. The characteristic shape is the undulating curve at the top. This gable is common in traditional architecture, including Japanese castles, Buddhist temples, and Shinto shrines. Roofing materials such as tile and bark may be used as coverings. The face beneath the gable may be flush with the wall below, or it may terminate on a lower roof.Contents1 History 2 Images 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Although kara (唐) can be translated as meaning "China" or "Tang", this type of roof with undulating bargeboards is an invention of Japanese carpenters in the late Heian period.[1] It was named thus because the word kara could also mean "noble" or "elegant", and was often added to names of objects considered grand or intricate regardless of origin.[2] The karahafu developed during the Heian period and is shown in picture scrolls to decorate gates, corridors, and palanquins
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Karamon
The karamon or karakado (唐門, chinese gate) is a type of gate seen in Japanese architecture. It is characterized by the usage of karahafu, an undulating bargeboard peculiar to Japan
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Katsuogi
Katsuogi
Katsuogi
(鰹木, 堅魚木, 勝男木, 葛緒木) or Kasoegi (斗木) are short, decorative logs found on Japanese and Shinto
Shinto
architecture. They are placed at a right angle along the ridge of roofs, and are usually featured in religious or imperial architecture. Katsuogi predate Buddhist influence and is an architectural element endemic to Japan.[1] They are often placed on the roof with chigi, a forked ornamentation used on Shinto
Shinto
shrines. Today, katsuogi and chigi are used exclusively on Shinto
Shinto
buildings and can be used to distinguish them from other religious structures, such as Buddhist temples in Japan.Contents1 Origin 2 Design 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesOrigin[edit] Katsuogi
Katsuogi
placed along the roof ridgepole at Ise ShrineThe original purpose of the katsuogi is uncertain
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Heiden (Shinto)
A heiden (幣殿, offertory hall) is the part within a Shinto
Shinto
shrine's compound used to house offerings. It normally consists of a connecting section linking the honden (sanctuary, closed to the public) to the haiden (oratory).[1] If the shrine is built in the Ishi-no-ma-zukuri style,[2] its stone pavement is lower than the floor of the other two rooms, and it is called ishi-no-ma (石の間, stone room), hence the name.[3] It can also be called chūden (中殿) or in other ways, and its position can sometimes vary
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Ken (architecture)
The ken (間) is a traditional Japanese unit of length, equal to six Japanese feet
Japanese feet
(shaku). The exact value has varied over time and location but has generally been a little shorter than 2 meters (6 ft 7 in).[1][2] It is now standardized as 1 9/11 meter. Although mostly supplanted by the metric system, this unit is a common measurement in Japanese architecture, where it is used as a proportion for the intervals between the pillars of traditional-style buildings. In this context, it is commonly translated as "bay". The length also appears in other contexts, such as the standard length of the bō staff in Japanese martial arts
Japanese martial arts
and the standard dimensions of the tatami mats
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