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Igmesine
Igmesine
Igmesine
(JO-1,784) is a sigma receptor agonist ( IC50
IC50
= 39 nM (rat brain)).[1][2] It has neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects in animal studies,[3][4] as well as nootropic effects in models of age-related cognitive decline.[5] In two phase II clinical trials, igmesine was found to be effective in the treatment of depression and was as active as the comparator fluoxetine.[2] However, in a large phase III clinical trial, igmesine failed to show significant effectiveness for depression.[6] The drug has not been developed further.[7] References[edit]^ Roman FJ, Pascaud X, Martin B, Vauché D, Junien JL (June 1990). "JO 1784, a potent and selective ligand for rat and mouse brain sigma-sites". The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 42 (6): 439–40. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1990.tb06588.x. PMID 1979628.  ^ a b Fishback JA, Robson MJ, Xu YT, Matsumoto RR (2010)
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Neuroprotective
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.[1] In the case of an ongoing insult (a neurodegenerative insult) the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation.[1] It is a widely explored treatment option for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and acute management of neurotoxin consumption (i.e. methamphetamine overdoses). Neuroprotection aims to prevent or slow disease progression and secondary injuries by halting or at least slowing the loss of neurons.[2] Despite differences in symptoms or injuries associated with CNS disorders, many of the mechanisms behind neurodegeneration are the same
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Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Dehydroepiandrosterone
sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate
DHEA sulfate
or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produce
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Clinical Trial
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements, and medical devices) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison. Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy.[1] They are conducted only after they have received health authority/ethics committee approval in the country where approval of the therapy is sought
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Nootropic
Nootropics (English pronunciation: /noʊ.əˈtrɒpɪks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2] The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E
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Antidepressant
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders
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Depression (mood)
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events such as loss of a loved one. It is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. Depressed mood is also a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.[1] People with a depressed mood may be notably sad, anxious, or empty; they may also feel notably hopeless, helpless, dejected, or worthless. Other symptoms expressed may include senses of guilt, irritability, or anger.[2][3] Further feelings expressed by these individuals may include feeling ashamed or an expressed restlessness. These individuals may notably lose interest in activities that they once considered pleasurable or experience either loss of appetite or overeating
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IC50
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function. This quantitative measure indicates how much of a particular drug or other substance (inhibitor) is needed to inhibit a given biological process (or component of a process, i.e. an enzyme, cell, cell receptor or microorganism) by half. The values are typically expressed as molar concentration. It is commonly used as a measure of antagonist drug potency in pharmacological research. According to the FDA, IC50
IC50
represents the concentration of a drug that is required for 50% inhibition in vitro.[1] It is comparable to an EC50 for agonist drugs
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community
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