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Ice Age
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods" (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations" or colloquially as "ice age"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials". In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres.[1] By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene—of the ice age
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Chamois
The chamois ( Rupicapra
Rupicapra
rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.[2] The chamois has also been introduced to the South Island
South Island
of New Zealand. Some subspecies of chamois are strictly protected in the EU under the European Habitats Directive.[3]Contents1 Names 2 Taxonomy 3 Description 4 Biology and behaviour 5 Distribution and habitat 6 Chamois
Chamois
in New Zealand 7 Hunting and wildlife management 8 Chamois
Chamois
leather 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksNames[edit] Chamois
Chamois
herd engraved on reindeer antler from Gourdan grotto, Haute Garonne.The English name comes from French chamois
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Flowering Plant
sweet bayScientific classificationKingdom: PlantaeSubkingdom: Embryophyta(unranked): Spermatophyta(unranked): AngiospermsGroups (APG IV)[1]Basal angiospermsAmborellales Nymphaeales AustrobaileyalesCore angiospermsmagnoliids Chloranthales monocots Ceratophyllales eudicotsSynonyms Anthophyta Cronquist[2] Angiospermae Lindl. Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht.
Takht.
& W.Zimm.[3] Magnolicae Takht.[4]The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae[5][6] or Magnoliophyta,[7] are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.[8] Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds
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Earliest Known Life Forms
The earliest known life forms on Earth
Earth
are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.[1] The earliest time that life forms first appeared on Earth
Earth
is unknown
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Late Heavy Bombardment
The Late Heavy Bombardment
Late Heavy Bombardment
(abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago,[1] at a time corresponding to the Neohadean
Neohadean
and Eoarchean
Eoarchean
eras on Earth. During this interval, a disproportionately large number of asteroids are theorized to have collided with the early terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System, including Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.[2] The Late Heavy Bombardment
Late Heavy Bombardment
happened after the Earth
Earth
and other rocky planets had formed and accreted most of their mass, but still quite early in Earth's history. Evidence for the LHB derives from lunar samples brought back by the Apollo astronauts
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Geological History Of Oxygen
Before photosynthesis evolved, Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
had no free oxygen (O2).[2] Photosynthetic
Photosynthetic
prokaryotic organisms that produced O2 as a waste product lived long before the first build-up of free oxygen in the atmosphere,[3] perhaps as early as 3.5 billion years ago. The oxygen they produced would have been rapidly removed from the atmosphere by weathering of reducing minerals, most notably iron. This "mass rusting" led to the deposition of iron oxide on the ocean floor, forming banded iron formations. Oxygen
Oxygen
only began to persist in the atmosphere in small quantities about 50 million years before the start of the Great Oxygenation Event.[4] This mass oxygenation of the atmosphere resulted in rapid buildup of free oxygen
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Great Oxygenation Event
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation
Oxidation
Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust,[2] Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.[3] Geological, isotopic, and chemical evidence suggest that this major environmental change happened around 2.45 billion years ago (2.45 Ga),[4] during the Siderian
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Ediacaran Biota
The Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(/ˌiːdiˈækərən/; formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period (ca. 635–542 Mya). Trace fossils of these organisms have been found worldwide, and represent the earliest known complex multicellular organisms.[note 1] The Ediacaran biota may have radiated in a proposed event called the Avalon explosion, 575 million years ago,[1][2] after the Earth had thawed from the Cryogenian period's extensive glaciation. The biota largely disappeared with the rapid increase in biodiversity known as the Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion. Most of the currently existing body plans of animals first appeared in the fossil record of the Cambrian
Cambrian
rather than the Ediacaran
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Cambrian Explosion
The Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion or Cambrian
Cambrian
radiation[1] was an event approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian
Cambrian
period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.[2][3] It lasted for about 20[4][5]–25[6][7] million years
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Phanerozoic
The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon[3] is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present,[4] and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian, the first period of this eon
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Dinosaur
Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs
are a diverse group of reptiles[note 1] of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic
Triassic
period, between 243 and 231 million years ago,[1] although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research.[2] They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic– Jurassic
Jurassic
extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods
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Proterozoic
The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/[1][2]) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being".[3] The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals)
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Archean
The Archean
Archean
Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/, also spelled Archaean) is a geologic eon, 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents.Contents1 Etymology and changes in classification 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean2.1 Palaeoenvironment3 Geology 4 Early life in the Archean 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology and changes in classification[edit] Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Hadean
The Hadean
Hadean
( /ˈheɪdiən/) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago.[1] As of 2016[update], the ICS describes its status as informal.[2] The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period"
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Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
(/dʒɪˈniːvə/, French: Genève [ʒənɛv], Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva], German: Genf [ɡɛnf], Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich) and is the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland
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