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IceCube
The ICECUBE NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY (or simply ICECUBE) is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica
Antarctica
. Its thousands of sensors are distributed over a cubic kilometre of volume under the Antarctic ice. Similar to its predecessor, the Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), IceCube consists of spherical optical sensors called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), each with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single board data acquisition computer which sends digital data to the counting house on the surface above the array. IceCube was completed on 18 December 2010. DOMs are deployed on "strings" of sixty modules each at depths ranging from 1,450 to 2,450 meters, into holes melted in the ice using a hot water drill. IceCube is designed to look for point sources of neutrinos in the TeV range to explore the highest-energy astrophysical processes
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Background Noise
In acoustics and specifically in acoustical engineering , BACKGROUND NOISE or AMBIENT NOISE is any sound other than the sound being monitored (primary sound). Background noise is a form of noise pollution or interference . Background noise is an important concept in setting noise levels affect your background in formations . See noise criteria for cinema/home cinema applications. Examples of background noises are environmental noises such as waves , traffic noise, alarms , people talking, bioacoustic noise from animals or birds and mechanical noise from devices such as refrigerators or air conditioning , power supplies or motors . The prevention or reduction of background noise is important in the field of active noise control . It is an important consideration with the use of ultrasound (e.g. for medical diagnosis or imaging), sonar and sound reproduction
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Atmosphere
An ATMOSPHERE (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapor', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'sphere' ) is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body , that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is mostly composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen
Oxygen
is used by most organisms for respiration , nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids and carbon dioxide is used by plants , algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis . The atmosphere helps protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation , solar wind and cosmic rays
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Galactic Magnetic Fields
A GALAXY is a gravitationally bound system of stars , stellar remnants , interstellar gas , dust , and dark matter . The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξίας), literally "milky", a reference to the Milky Way . Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million (108) stars to giants with one hundred trillion (1014) stars, each orbiting its galaxy's center of mass . Galaxies are categorized according to their visual morphology as elliptical , spiral , or irregular . Many galaxies are thought to have black holes at their active centers . The Milky Way's central black hole, known as Sagittarius A* , has a mass four million times greater than the Sun . As of March 2016, GN-z11 is the oldest and most distant observed galaxy with a comoving distance of 32 billion light-years from Earth, and observed as it existed just 400 million years after the Big Bang
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Gyroradius
The GYRORADIUS (also known as RADIUS OF GYRATION, LARMOR RADIUS or CYCLOTRON RADIUS) is the radius of the circular motion of a charged particle in the presence of a uniform magnetic field . In SI units , the gyroradius is given by r g = m v q B {displaystyle r_{g}={frac {mv_{perp }}{qB}}} where m {displaystyle m} is the mass of the particle, v {displaystyle v_{perp }} is the component of the velocity perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, q {displaystyle q} is the electric charge of the particle, and B {displaystyle B} is the strength of the magnetic field. The angular frequency of this circular motion is known as the GYROFREQUENCY, or CYCLOTRON FREQUENCY , and can be expressed as g = q B m {displaystyle omega _{g}={frac {qB}{m}}} in units of radians /second
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Particle Track
ION TRACKS are damage-trails created by swift heavy ions penetrating through solids, which may be sufficiently-contiguous for chemical etching in a variety of crystalline, glassy, and/or polymeric solids. They are associated with cylindrical damage-regions several nanometers in diameter and can be studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS ) or gas permeation . CONTENTS * 1 Ion track technology * 2 Materials susceptible to ion track recording * 3 Irradiation apparatus and methods * 4 Formation of ion tracks * 5 Etching methods * 5.1 Selective ion etching * 5.2 Surfactant enhanced etching * 5.3 Other related terminology * 6 Replication * 7 Applications * 8 Notes ION TRACK TECHNOLOGYIon track technology deals with the production and application of ion tracks in microtechnology and nanotechnology
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Scattering
SCATTERING is a general physical process where some forms of radiation , such as light , sound , or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection . Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections. Scattering
Scattering
may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons , photons and other particles. Examples include: cosmic ray scattering in the Earth's upper atmosphere; particle collisions inside particle accelerators ; electron scattering by gas atoms in fluorescent lamps; and neutron scattering inside nuclear reactors
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Photomultiplier
PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES (PHOTOMULTIPLIERS or PMTS for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes , and more specifically vacuum phototubes , are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet , visible , and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum . These detectors multiply the current produced by incident light by as much as 100 million times (i.e., 160 dB ), in multiple dynode stages, enabling (for example) individual photons to be detected when the incident flux of light is low
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Kinematical
KINEMATICS is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion. Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics. A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on masses falls within kinetics . For further details, see analytical dynamics . Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies
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Muon Neutrino
The MUON NEUTRINO is a lepton , an elementary subatomic particle which has the symbol ν μ and no net electric charge . Together with the muon it forms the second generation of leptons, hence the name muon neutrino . It was first hypothesized in the early 1940s by several people, and was discovered in 1962 by Leon Lederman , Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger . The discovery was rewarded with the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics . CONTENTS * 1 Discovery * 2 Speed * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading DISCOVERYIn 1962 Leon M. Lederman , Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger established by performing an experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory that more than one type of neutrino exists by first detecting interactions of the muon neutrino (already hypothesised with the name neutretto ), which earned them the 1988 Nobel Prize
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Electron Neutrino
The ELECTRON NEUTRINO ( ν e) is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge . Together with the electron it forms the first generation of leptons, hence the name electron neutrino . It was first hypothesized by Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Pauli
in 1930, to account for missing momentum and missing energy in beta decay , and was discovered in 1956 by a team led by Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines
Frederick Reines
(see Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment )
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Pierre Auger Observatory
The PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY is an international cosmic ray observatory in Argentina
Argentina
designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays : sub-atomic particles traveling nearly at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV . In Earth's atmosphere such particles interact with air nuclei and produce various other particles. These effect particles (called an "air shower ") can be detected and measured. But since these high energy particles have an estimated arrival rate of just 1 per km2 per century, the Auger Observatory has created a detection area of 3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi)—the size of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, or Luxembourg
Luxembourg
—in order to record a large number of these events. It is located in the western Mendoza Province , Argentina
Argentina
, near the Andes
Andes

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Cosmic Microwave Background
The COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND (CMB) is electromagnetic radiation left over from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology . In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination . With a traditional optical telescope , the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic , that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum
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Gamma Ray Burst
In gamma-ray astronomy , GAMMA-RAY BURSTS (GRBS) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies . They are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe . Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several hours. After an initial flash of gamma rays , a longer-lived "afterglow" is usually emitted at longer wavelengths (X-ray , ultraviolet , optical , infrared , microwave and radio ). The intense radiation of most observed GRBs is believed to be released during a supernova or hypernova as a rapidly rotating, high-mass star collapses to form a neutron star , quark star , or black hole . A subclass of GRBs (the "short" bursts) appear to originate from a different process: the merger of binary neutron stars
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Supernova Remnant
A SUPERNOVA REMNANT (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova . The supernova remnant is bounded by an expanding shock wave , and consists of ejected material expanding from the explosion, and the interstellar material it sweeps up and shocks along the way. There are two common routes to a supernova: either a massive star may run out of fuel, ceasing to generate fusion energy in its core, and collapsing inward under the force of its own gravity to form a neutron star or a black hole ; or a white dwarf star may accumulate (accrete ) material from a companion star until it reaches a critical mass and undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. In either case, the resulting supernova explosion expels much or all of the stellar material with velocities as much as 10% the speed of light, that is, about 30,000 km/s
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Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission
Swift
Swift
mission patch Medium Explorer program ← WMAP
WMAP
THEMIS
THEMIS
→ The SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST MISSION consists of a robotic spacecraft called SWIFT, which was launched into orbit on November 20, 2004, at 17:16:00 UTC
UTC
on a Delta II
Delta II
7320-10C expendable launch vehicle . Headed by principal investigator Neil Gehrels , NASA
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center , the mission was developed in a joint partnership between Goddard and an international consortium from the United States
United States
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and Italy
Italy
. It is part of NASA's Medium Explorer program (MIDEX). The mission is operated at Pennsylvania State University
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