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IceCube
The IceCube Neutrino
Neutrino
Observatory (or simply IceCube) is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
in Antarctica.[1] Its thousands of sensors are distributed over a cubic kilometre of volume under the Antarctic ice. Similar to its predecessor, the Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array
Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array
(AMANDA), IceCube consists of spherical optical sensors called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), each with a photomultiplier tube (PMT)[2] and a single board data acquisition computer which sends digital data to the counting house on the surface above the array.[3] IceCube was completed on 18 December 2010.[4] DOMs are deployed on strings of 60 modules each at depths between 1,450 to 2,450 meters, into holes melted in the ice using a hot water drill
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Bow Shock
Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium. This occurs when the magnetic field of an astrophysical object interacts with the nearby flowing ambient plasma. For example, when the solar wind, flowing with a relative speed of order 400 km/s, encounters the magnetic field of Earth, a bow shape boundary forms. For Earth
Earth
and other magnetized planets, it is the boundary at which the speed of the stellar wind abruptly drops as a result of its approach to the magnetopause
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Scattering
Scattering
Scattering
is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection. Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections. Scattering
Scattering
may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons, photons and other particles
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Tau Lepton
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. Together with the electron, the muon, and the three neutrinos, it is a lepton. Like all elementary particles with half-integer spin, the tau has a corresponding antiparticle of opposite charge but equal mass and spin, which in the tau's case is the antitau (also called the positive tau). Tau particles are denoted by τ− and the antitau by τ+. Tau leptons have a lifetime of 6987290000000000000♠2.9×10−13 s and a mass of 7003177682000000000♠1776.82 MeV/c2 (compared to 7002105700000000000♠105.7 MeV/c2 for muons and 6999511000000000000♠0.511 MeV/c2 for electrons). Since their interactions are very similar to those of the electron, a tau can be thought of as a much heavier version of the electron
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Speed Of Light
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its exact value is 7008299792458000000♠299,792,458 metres per second (approximately 7008300000000000000♠3.00×108 m/s, or 300,000 km/s (186,000 mi/s)[Note 3]). It is exact because the unit of length, the metre, is defined from this constant and the international standard for time.[2] According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all conventional matter and hence all known forms of information in the universe can travel. Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is in fact the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields travel in vacuum (including electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves). Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Photomultiplier
Photomultiplier
Photomultiplier
tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. These detectors multiply the current produced by incident light by as much as 100 million times (i.e., 160 dB), in multiple dynode stages, enabling (for example) individual photons to be detected when the incident flux of light is low.Dynodes inside a photomultiplier tubeThe combination of high gain, low noise, high frequency response or, equivalently, ultra-fast response, and large area of collection has maintained photomultipliers an essential place in nuclear and particle physics, astronomy, medical diagnostics including blood tests, medical imaging, motion picture film scanning (telecine), radar jamming, and high-end image scanners known as drum scanners
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Kinematical
Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.[1][2][3] Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics.[4][5][6] A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on masses falls within kinetics. For further details, see analytical dynamics. Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies
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Muon Neutrino
The muon neutrino is a lepton, an elementary subatomic particle which has the symbol ν μ and no net electric charge. Together with the muon it forms the second generation of leptons, hence the name muon neutrino. It was first hypothesized in the early 1940s by several people, and was discovered in 1962 by Leon Lederman, Melvin Schwartz
Melvin Schwartz
and Jack Steinberger. The discovery was rewarded with the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics.Contents1 Discovery 2 Speed 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingDiscovery[edit] In 1962 Leon M
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Electron Neutrino
The electron neutrino (ν e) is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge. Together with the electron it forms the first generation of leptons, hence the name electron neutrino
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Particle Track
Ion tracks are damage-trails created by swift heavy ions penetrating through solids, which may be sufficiently-contiguous for chemical etching in a variety of crystalline, glassy, and/or polymeric solids.[1][2] They are associated with cylindrical damage-regions several nanometers in diameter[3][4] and can be studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) or gas permeation.[5]Contents1 Ion track technology 2 Materials susceptible to ion track recording 3 Irradiation apparatus and methods 4 Formation of ion tracks 5 Etching methods5.1 Selective ion etching 5.2 Surfactant enhanced etching 5.3 Other related terminology6 Replication 7 Applications 8 NotesIon track technology[edit] Ion track technology deals with the production and application of ion tracks in microtechnology and nanotechnology.[6] Ion tracks can be selectively etche
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Lepton
A lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin (spin ​1⁄2) particle that does not undergo strong interactions.[1] Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. The best known of all leptons is the electron. There are six types of leptons, known as flavours, forming three generations.[2] The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electron (e−) and electron neutrino (ν e); the second is the muonic leptons, comprising the muon (μ−) and muon neutrino (ν μ); and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising the tau (τ−) and the tau neutrino (ν τ). Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons
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Background Noise
Background noise or ambient noise is any sound other than the sound being monitored (primary sound). Background noise is a form of noise pollution or interference. Background noise is an important concept in setting noise levels affect your background in formations. See noise criteria for cinema/home cinema applications. Examples of background noises are environmental noises such as waves, traffic noise, alarms, people talking, bioacoustic noise from animals or birds and mechanical noise from devices such as refrigerators or air conditioning, power supplies or motors. The prevention or reduction of background noise is important in the field of active noise control. It is an important consideration with the use of ultrasound (e.g
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Atmosphere
An atmosphere (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'sphere'[1][2]) is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen
Oxygen
is used by most organisms for respiration; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids; and carbon dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays
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Galactic Magnetic Fields
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.[1][2] The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξίας), literally "milky", a reference to the Milky Way. Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million (108) stars to giants with one hundred trillion (1014) stars,[3] each orbiting its galaxy's center of mass. Galaxies are categorized according to their visual morphology as elliptical,[4] spiral, or irregular.[5] Many galaxies are thought to have black holes at their active centers
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Gyroradius
The gyroradius (also known as radius of gyration, Larmor radius or cyclotron radius) is the radius of the circular motion of a charged particle in the presence of a uniform magnetic field
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