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Ice Sheet
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi),[1] this is also known as continental glacier.[2] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica
Antarctica
and Greenland; during the last glacial period at Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
(LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet
Laurentide ice sheet
covered much of North America, the Weichselian
Weichselian
ice sheet covered northern Europe and the Patagonian Ice
Ice
Sheet covered southern South America. Ice
Ice
sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers. Masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap
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Satellite Imagery
Satellite imagery
Satellite imagery
are images of Earth
Earth
or other planets collected by Imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple Maps
Apple Maps
and Google Maps.Contents1 History 2 Uses 3 Resolution and data 4 Imaging satellites4.1 GeoEye 4.2 DigitalGlobe 4.3 Spot Image 4.4 ASTER 4.5 BlackBridge 4.6 ImageSat International 4.7 Meteosat5 Disadvantages 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]The satellite images were made from pixels. The first crude image taken by the satellite Explorer 6
Explorer 6
shows a sunlit area of the Central Pacific Ocean and its cloud cover. The photo was taken when the satellite was about 17,000 mi (27,000 km) above the surface of the earth on August 14, 1959
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Fossil
A fossil (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging")[1] is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old.[2] The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old[3][4][5] to 4.1 billion years old.[6][7] The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae
Viridiplantae
(Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Seabed
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.Contents1 Seabed
Seabed
structure1.1 Technical terms2 Benthos 3 Seabed
Seabed
features 4 History of exploration 5 Resources 6 In art and culture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Seabed
Seabed
structure[edit] See also: Seafloor spreadingThis section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The major oceanic divisionsMost of the oceans have a common structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement, and sediment from various sources
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Ross Ice Shelf
The Ross Ice Shelf
Ross Ice Shelf
is the largest ice shelf of Antarctica
Antarctica
(as of 2013 an area of roughly 500,809 square kilometres (193,363 sq mi)[1] and about 800 kilometres (500 mi) across: about the size of France).[2] It is several hundred metres thick. The nearly vertical ice front to the open sea is more than 600 kilometres (370 mi) long, and between 15 and 50 metres (50 and 160 ft) high above the water surface.[3] Ninety percent of the floating ice, however, is below the water surface. Most of Ross Ice Shelf
Ross Ice Shelf
is in the Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
claimed by New Zealand. It floats in, and covers, a large southern portion of the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
and the entire Roosevelt Island located in the west of the Ross Sea. The ice shelf is named after Captain Sir James Clark Ross, who discovered it on 28 January 1841
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Ronne Ice Shelf
The Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, also known as Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf, is an Antarctic ice shelf bordering the Weddell Sea.Contents1 Description 2 Calving 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The seaward side of the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf is divided into Eastern (Filchner) 79°00′S 40°00′W / 79.000°S 40.000°W / -79.000; -40.000 and the larger Western (Ronne) 78°30′S 61°00′W / 78.500°S 61.000°W / -78.500; -61.000 sections by Berkner Island. The whole ice shelf covers some 430,000 km², making it the second largest ice shelf in Antarctica, after the Ross Ice Shelf. It grows perpetually due to a flow of inland ice sheets. From time to time, when the shearing stresses exceed the strength of the ice, cracks form and large parts of the ice sheet separate from the ice shelf and continue as icebergs. This is known as calving. The Ronne ice shelf is the larger and western part of the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf
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Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations,[1][2] set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.[3] It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations
United Nations
organizations, the World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, United States. .mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capacity and growth 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 Limitations 3.2 In legal evidence3.2.1 Civil litigation3.2.1.1 Netbula LLC v
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Nature (journal)
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.[1] It was ranked the world's most cited scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal
Journal
Citation Reports and is ascribed an impact factor of 40.137 , making it one of the world's top academic journals.[2][3] It is one of the few remaining academic journals that publishes original research across a wide range of scientific fields.[3][4] Research
Research
scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but summaries and accompanying articles are intended to make many of the most important papers understandable to scientists in other fields and the educated public. Towards the front of each issue are editorials, news and feature articles on issues of general interest to scientists, including current affairs, science funding, business, scientific ethics and research breakthroughs. There are also sections on books and arts
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval.[1] From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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