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Ibrahim I Ibn Al-Aghlab
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
(Arabic: إبراهيم بن الأغلب‎; 756-812) was the first Emir
Emir
of the Aghlabids
Aghlabids
in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(800-812) He was the son of al-Aghlab, who successfully quelled the revolt of the Khawarij
Khawarij
in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
at the end of the 8th century
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Dirham
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states. It was formerly the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and old Persian states. The name derives from the ancient Greek currency the drachma.[1]Contents1 Unit of mass 2 History2.1 Dirham
Dirham
in Jewish
Jewish
orthodox law3 Modern-day currency 4 See also 5 ReferencesUnit of mass[edit] The dirham was a unit of weight used across North Africa, the Middle East, and Persia, with varying values. In the late Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Ottoman Turkish درهم), the standard dirham was 3.207 g;[2] 400 dirhem equal one oka
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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Khawarij
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey textsReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)Heads of state
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Harun Al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(/hɑːˈruːnɑːlrɑːˈʃiːd/ Arabic: هَارُون الرَشِيد‎ Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri)[1] was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign
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Maliki
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi JaririSunni schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t e Sharia
Sharia
based on Maliki
Maliki
school (in teal) is the predominant Sunni school in North Africa, West Africa
West Africa
and parts of central eastern Arabian peninsula.[1]The Mālikī (Arabic: مالكي‎) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.[2] It was founded by Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
in the 8th century
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Kairouan
Kairouan
Kairouan
(Arabic: القيروان‎  Qeirwān, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate
Kairouan Governorate
in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Umayyads
Umayyads
around 670.[1] In the period of Caliph
Caliph
Mu'awiya (reigned 661–680), it became an important centre for Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning,[2] and thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina
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Muʿtazila
Muʿtazila
Muʿtazila
(Arabic: المعتزلة‎ al-muʿtazilah) is a school of Islamic theology[1] that flourished in the cities of Basra
Basra
and Baghdad, both now in Iraq, during the 8th to the 10th centuries. The adherents of the Mutazili sc
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Zanj
Zanj (Arabic: زنج‎, meaning "Land of the Blacks"[1][2][3]) was a name used by medieval Muslim geographers to refer to both a certain portion of Southeast Africa
Southeast Africa
(primarily the Swahili Coast), and to the area's Bantu inhabitants.[4] This word is also the origin of the place-names Zanzibar
Zanzibar
("coast of the black people") and the Sea of Zanj. Zengī (زنگی) is of unknown derivation. However, the appellation in Persian is roughly equivalent with "negro". It is recorded in Arabic as zanjī (زنجي), and in Turkish as zencî.[5] The latinization Zingium is an archaic name for the band of East Africa coast in modern-day Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية‎ Ifrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania
Tripolitania
(western Libya) and the Constantinois
Constantinois
(eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.[1]. The southern boundary of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily
Sicily
otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Béjaïa
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Muhammad Ibn Muqatil Al-'Akki
Muhammad ibn Muqatil ibn Hakim al-'Akki (Arabic: محمد بن مقاتل بن حكيم العكي‎) was a provincial governor for the Abbasid Caliphate. Appointed to Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
in 797, he was the last governor of that province prior to the establishment of the Aghlabid dynasty in 800. Career[edit] The son of Muqatil ibn Hakim al-'Akki, a supporter of the Abbasid Revolution,[1] Muhammad himself was a foster brother of the caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(r. 786–809). In 797 Harun appointed him to Ifriqiya, as a replacement for Harthamah ibn A'yan
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Aghlabids
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance Pacification Emir
Emir
Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh B
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