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Ibn Al-Rawandi
Abu al-Hasan Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Ishaq al-Rawandi (Persian: ابو الحسن احمد بن یحیی بن اسحاق راوندی‎, Arabic: أبو الحسن أحمد بن يحيى بن إسحاق الراوندي‎), commonly known as Ibn al-Rawandi (Persian: ابن راوندی‎;‎ 827–911 CE[1]), was an early skeptic of Islam
Islam
and a critic of religion in general
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
xwarāsān, Persian: خراسان‎ Ḫurāsān  listen (help·info)), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise")[1] and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal
Jibal
or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sindh.[2] During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories
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Mecca
Mecca
Mecca
(/ˈmɛkə/) or Makkah (Arabic: مكة‎[1] Makkah (Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈmakːa,ˈmäkːä]) is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah
Tihamah
in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region.[8] The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah
Jeddah
in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal p
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Miracle
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.[2] Such an event may be attributed to a supernatural being (especially a deity), magic, a miracle worker, a saint or a religious leader. Informally, the word "miracle" is often used to characterise any beneficial event that is statistically unlikely but not contrary to the laws of nature, such as surviving a natural disaster, or simply a "wonderful" occurrence, regardless of likelihood, such as a birth. Other such miracles might be: survival of an illness diagnosed as terminal, escaping a life-threatening situation or 'beating the odds'. Some coincidences may be seen as miracles.[3] A true miracle would, by definition, be a non-natural phenomenon, leading many rational and scientific thinkers to dismiss them as physically impossible (that is, requiring violation of established laws of physics within their domain of validity) or impossible to confirm by their nature (because all possible physical mechanisms can never be
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Jesus
Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity
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Ritual Purity In Islam
Purity (Arabic: طهارة‎, Tahara(h)) is an essential aspect of Islam. (The same term taharah is also found in Hebrew—see tumah and taharah—applying to purity in Ancient Israel and modern Judaism also.) It is the opposite of najis, things which are considered ritually impure are in the state of najāsa.Contents1 In the Quran 2 Importance in Islam 3 Shia views on purity and impurity3.1 Majority views 3.2 Minority views4 Cleaning the teeth 5 Smoking 6 Sex 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksIn the Quran[edit] The Quran
Quran
says: "In it there are men who love to observe purity and Allah loves those who maintain purity."[Quran 9:108] and also there is one verse which concerned with Taharah or purity and impurity of Human as follow:"O you who believe! The polytheists are certainly impure[najas]: so let them not approach the Holy Mosque after thistheir year. And if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you out of His grace, if He wishes
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Hajj
The Hajj
Hajj
(/hædʒ/;[1] Arabic: حَجّ‎ Ḥaǧǧ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca,[2] the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.[3][4][5] It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat
Zakat
and Sawm. The Hajj
Hajj
is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world.[6] The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj
Hajj
is called istita'ah, and a Muslim
Muslim
who fulfills this condition is called a mustati
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Circumambulation
Circumambulation[1] (from Latin circum around[2] and ambulātus to walk[3]) is the act of moving around a sacred object or idol.[4] Circumambulation
Circumambulation
of temples or deity images is an integral part of Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
devotional practice (known in Sanskrit as pradakśina or pradakshinaṇā).[5] It is also present in other religions, including Christianity, Judaism and Islam.Contents1 Hinduism 2 Christianity 3 Islam 4 Judaism 5 Buddhism 6 Sikhism 7 Bahá'í 8 Bön 9 Freemasonry 10 See also 11 ReferencesHinduism[edit] Main article: Parikrama In many Hindu
Hindu
temples, the temple structure reflects the symbolism of the Hindu
Hindu
association of the spiritual transition from daily life to spiritual perfection as a journey through stages
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Kaaba
The Kaaba
Kaaba
(Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة‎ al-kaʿbah IPA: [alˈkaʕba], "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة‎, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.[1] It is the most sacred site in Islam.[2] It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayṫ Allāh (Arabic: بَـيْـت ٱلله‎, "House of God"), and has a similar role to the Tabernacle and Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
in Judaism. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Ka'bah when performing Ṣalâṫ (Arabic: صَـلَاة‎, Islamic prayer)
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Al-Safa And Al-Marwah
Safa (Arabic: الصّفا‎, translit. Aṣ-Ṣafā) and Marwa (Arabic: المروة‎, translit. Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Great Mosque of Mecca
Great Mosque of Mecca
in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
named the Kabbah. Muslims travel back and forth between them seven times, during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah.Contents1 Location 2 Islamic tradition 3 Sa'i 4 See also 5 ReferencesLocation[edit]Movement path between Safa and Marwa, next to the Ka'bahThe Great Mosque
Mosque
houses the Ka'bah, the focal point of prayer for all Muslims. Safa—from which the ritual walking or Sa'i begins—and Marwa are located approximately 100 m (330 ft) and 350 m (1,150 ft) from the Ka'bah
Ka'bah
respectively
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Abu Qubays
Abu Qubays
Abu Qubays
(Arabic: أبو قبيس‎ also spelled Abu Qobeis, Abu Qubais or Bu Kubais; also known as Qartal) is a former medieval castle and currently an inhabited village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Hama
Hama
Governorate, located northwest of Hama. It is situated in the al-Ghab plain, west of the Orontes River. Nearby localities include Daliyah
Daliyah
21 kilometers to the west,[1] al-Laqbah to the south, Deir Shamil
Deir Shamil
to the southeast, Tell Salhab
Tell Salhab
to the northeast and Nahr al-Bared further northeast
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Encyclopaedia Of Islam
The Encyclopaedia
Encyclopaedia
of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies
Islamic studies
published by Brill. It is considered to be the standard reference work in the field of Islamic studies.[1] The first edition was published in 1913–1938, the second in 1954–2005, and the third was begun in 2007.Contents1 Content 2 Standing 3 Editions3.1 1st edition, EI1 3.2 SEI 3.3 2nd edition, EI2 3.4 3rd edition, EI34 Urdu
Urdu
translation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksContent[edit] According to Brill, the EI includes "articles on distinguished Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities
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Brahmans
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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