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Ibanag Language
The Ibanag language
Ibanag language
(also Ybanag or Ibanak) is spoken by up to 500,000 speakers, most particularly by the Ibanag people, in the Philippines, in the northeastern provinces of Isabela and Cagayan, especially in Tuguegarao, Solana, Abulug, Cabagan, and Ilagan and with overseas immigrants in countries located in the Middle East, United Kingdom and the United States. Most of the speakers can also speak Ilocano, the lingua franca of northern Luzon
Luzon
island. The name Ibanag comes from the prefix "I" which means "people of", and "bannag", meaning river
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Stop Consonant
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) or body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.Contents1 Terminology 2 Common stops 3 Articulation 4 Classification4.1 Voice 4.2 Aspiration 4.3 Length 4.4 Nasalization 4.5 Airstream mechanism 4.6 Tenseness5 Transcription5.1 English 5.2 Variations6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit] The terms stop, occlusive, and plosive are often used interchangeably. Linguists who distinguish them may not agree on the distinction being made. The terms refer to different features of the consonant. "Stop" refers to the airflow that is stopped
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Bilabial Consonant
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.Contents1 Transcription 2 See also 3 References3.1 Notes 3.2 General referencesTranscription[edit] The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are:IPA Description ExampleLanguage Orthography IPA Meaningbilabial nasal English man [mæn]voiceless bilabial stop English spin [spɪn]voiced bilabial stop English bed [bɛd]voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese 富士山 (fujisan) [ɸuʑisaɴ] Mount Fujivoiced bilabial fricative Ewe ɛʋɛ [ɛ̀βɛ̀] Ewebilabial approximant Spanish lobo [loβ̞o] wolfbilabial trill Nias simbi [siʙi] lower jawbilabial ejective Adyghe пӀэ [pʼa] meatʘ̬ ʘ̃ ʘ̥̃ʰ ʘ̃ˀ bilabial click release (many distinct consonants) Nǁng ʘoe [ʘoe] meatOwere Igbo has a six-way contrast among bilabial stops: [p pʰ ɓ̥ b b̤ ɓ]
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Solana, Cagayan
Solana, officially the Municipality of Solana, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cagayan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 82,502 people.[3] The Awidon Mesa Formationa Paleolithic Sites of the municipality, along with the Callao Limestone Formation Paleolithic Sites neighboring Penablanca, are included in the tentative list of the Philippines
Philippines
for future UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
inscription under the name of Paleolithic Archaeological Sites in Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley
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Fricative Consonant
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German [x] (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ] (appearing twice in the name Llanelli). This turbulent airflow is called frication. A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ] are examples of sibilants. The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" can be a synonym of "fricative", or (as in e.g. Uralic linguistics) refer to non-sibilant fricatives only
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Northern Luzon
Luzon
Luzon
(/luːˈzɒn/ ( listen); Tagalog pronunciation: [luˈson]) is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon
Quezon
City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015[update],[2] it is the fourth most populous island in the world (after Java, Honshu, and Great Britain), having about 53% of the country's total population. Luzon
Luzon
may also refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country
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Monophthong
A monophthong (/ˈmɒnəfθɒŋ/ Greek monóphthongos[1] from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation. The monophthongs can be contrasted with diphthongs, where the vowel quality changes within the same syllable, and hiatus, where two vowels are next to each other in different syllables
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Diphthongs
A diphthong (/ˈdɪfθɒŋ/ DIF-thong or /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/ DIP-thong;[1] from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue (and/or other parts of the speech apparatus) moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In many dialects of English, the phrase no highway cowboys /ˌnoʊ ˈhaɪweɪ ˈkaʊbɔɪz/ has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong (/ɑː/), while the word ow is spoken as a diphthong in most dialects (/aʊ/)
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Gemination
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant. It is distinct from stress and may appear independently of it. Gemination literally means "twinning" and comes from the same Latin
Latin
root as "Gemini". Consonant
Consonant
length is distinctive in some languages, like Arabic, Berber, Maltese, Catalan, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Classical Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil and Telugu. Most languages (including English) do not have distinctive long consonants, however. Vowel length
Vowel length
is distinctive in more languages than consonant length is
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Labiodental Consonant
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.Contents1 Labiodental consonant
Labiodental consonant
in IPA 2 Occurrence 3 Dentolabial consonants 4 See also 5 References Labiodental consonant
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Flap Consonant
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.Contents1 Contrast with stops and trills 2 Tap vs. flap 3 IPA symbols 4 Types of flaps4.1 Alveolar flaps 4.2 Retroflex flaps 4.3 Lateral flaps 4.4 Non-coronal flaps 4.5 Nasal flaps 4.6 Tapped fricatives5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksContrast with stops and trills[edit] The main difference between a flap and a stop is that in a flap there is no buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation and consequently no release burst. Otherwise a flap is similar to a brief stop. Flaps also contrast with trills, where the airstream causes the articulator to vibrate. Trills may be realized as a single contact, like a flap, but are variable, whereas a flap is limited to a single contact
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Alveolar Consonant
Alveolar consonants (/ælˈviːələr, ˌælviˈoʊlər/) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants
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Postalveolar Consonant
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants. Examples of postalveolar consonants are the English palato-alveolar consonants [ʃ] [tʃ] [ʒ] [dʒ], as in the words "ship", "'chill", "vision", and "jump", respectively. There are a large number of types of postalveolar sounds, especially among the sibilants
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Palatal Consonant
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Distinction from palatalized consonants and consonant clusters 3 Examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages.[citation needed] The nasal [ɲ] is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages,[1] in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop [c], but the affricate [t͡ʃ]
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Velar Consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels.[1] They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.[citation needed][by whom?] Many languages also have labialized velars, such as [kʷ], in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial–velar consonants, which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as [k͡p]
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Glottal Consonant
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic, most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/
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