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ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector
The ITU
ITU
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Standardization
Standardization
Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications. The standardization efforts of ITU
ITU
commenced in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union (ITU). ITU
ITU
became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947
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G.711
G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding. It is primarily used in telephony. The standard was released for usage in 1972. Its formal name is Pulse code modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies. It is a required standard in many technologies, for example in H.320 and H.323 specifications. It can also be used for fax communication over IP networks (as defined in T.38
T.38
specification). G.711, also known as Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), is a very commonly used waveform codec. G.711 is a narrowband audio codec that provides toll-quality audio at 64 kbit/s. G.711 passes audio signals in the range of 300–3400 Hz and samples them at the rate of 8,000 samples per second, with the tolerance on that rate of 50 parts per million (ppm). Non-uniform (logarithmic) quantization with 8 bits is used to represent each sample, resulting in a 64 kbit/s bit rate
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T.30 (ITU-T Recommendation)
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device. The original document is scanned with a fax machine (or a telecopier), which processes the contents (text or images) as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap, and then transmitting it through the telephone system in the form of audio-frequency tones. The receiving fax machine interprets the tones and reconstructs the image, printing a paper copy.[1] Early systems used direct conversions of image darkness to audio tone in a continuous or analog manner
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JPEG
JPEG
JPEG
(/ˈdʒeɪpɛɡ/ JAY-peg)[1] is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG
JPEG
typically achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality.[2] JPEG
JPEG
compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.[3] These format variations are often not distinguished, and are simply called JPEG. The term "JPEG" is an initialism/acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard
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JPEG 2000
JPEG
JPEG
2000 (JP2) is an image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG
JPEG
standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet-based method. The standardized filename extension is .jp2 for ISO/IEC 15444-1 conforming files and .jpx for the extended part-2 specifications, published as ISO/IEC 15444-2. The registered MIME types are defined in RFC 3745. For ISO/IEC 15444-1 it is image/jp2. JPEG
JPEG
2000 code streams are regions of interest that offer several mechanisms to support spatial random access or region of interest access at varying degrees of granularity
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H.262
H.262[1] or MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 2 (formally known as ITU-T Recommendation H.262 and ISO/IEC 13818-2,[2] also known as MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Video) is a video coding format developed and maintained jointly by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group
Moving Picture Experts Group
(MPEG). It is the second part of the ISO/IEC MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standard. The ITU-T Recommendation H.262 and ISO/IEC 13818-2 documents are identical. The standard is available for a fee from the ITU-T[1] and ISO. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Video is similar to MPEG-1, but also provides support for interlaced video (an encoding technique used in analog NTSC, PAL and SECAM television systems). MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video is not optimized for low bit-rates (less than 1 Mbit/s), but outperforms MPEG-1
MPEG-1
at 3 Mbit/s and above
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H.264
H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding ( MPEG-4 AVC) is a block-oriented motion-compensation-based video compression standard. As of 2014[update] it is one of the most commonly used formats for the recording, compression, and distribution of video content.[1] It supports resolutions up to 8192×4320, including 8K UHD.[2] The intent of the H.264/AVC project was to create a standard capable of providing good video quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards (i.e., half or less the bit rate of MPEG-2, H.263, or MPEG-4 Part 2), without increasing the complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to implement
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H.265
High Efficiency Video Coding
High Efficiency Video Coding
(HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard, one of several potential successors to the widely used AVC (H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10). In comparison to AVC, HEVC offers about double the data compression ratio at the same level of video quality, or substantially improved video quality at the same bit rate
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Data Communication
Data
Data
transmission also data communication or digital communications is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal[1]) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared signal. Analog or analogue transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying wave forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method
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ITU-T V-Series Recommendations
The ITU-T V-Series Recommendations on Data
Data
communication over the telephone network specify the protocols that govern approved modem communication standards and interfaces.[1] Note: the bis and ter suffixes are ITU-T standard designators of successive iterations of a standard (bis and t
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Fax
Fax
Fax
(short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device. The original document is scanned with a fax machine (or a telecopier), which processes the contents (text or images) as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap, and then transmitting it through the telephone system in the form of audio-frequency tones. The receiving fax machine interprets the tones and reconstructs the image, printing a paper copy.[1] Early systems used direct conversions of image darkness to audio tone in a continuous or analog manner
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T.37 (ITU-T Recommendation)
T.37 is an ITU
ITU
standard which deals with sending fax messages using email. It is also referred to as "iFax", "Internet Fax", or "Store-forward-fax". A fax machine supporting T.37 will send a fax to an email address by converting the document to a TIFF-F image, attaching it to an email (using the MIME format), and sending the document (using SMTP). The destination fax receives the email and prints the attached document. To interface with regular fax machines: T.37 can be used in conjunction with fax gateways to communicate with regular fax machines
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ASN.1
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is an interface description language for defining data structures that can be serialized and deserialized in a standard, cross-platform way. It's broadly used in telecommunications and computer networking, and especially in cryptography. Protocol developers define data structures in ASN.1 modules, which are generally a section of a broader standards document written in the ASN.1 language. Because the language is both human-readable and machine-readable, modules can be automatically turned into libraries that process their data structures, using an ASN.1 compiler. ASN.1 is similar in purpose and use to protocol buffers and Apache Thrift, which are also interface description languages for cross-platform data serialization. Like those languages, it has a schema (in ASN.1, called a "module"), and a set of encodings, typically type-length-value encodings. However, ASN.1, defined in 1984, predates them by many years
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T.38
T.38
T.38
is an ITU recommendation for allowing transmission of fax over IP networks in real time.Contents1 History 2 Overview 3 Operation3.1 Bandwidth reduction 3.2 PCM clock synchronization 3.3 Packet loss4 Related Standards 5 Related Software 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The T.38
T.38
fax relay standard was devised in 1998 as a way to permit faxes to be transported across IP networks between existing Group 3 (G3) fax terminals. T.4
T.4
and related fax standards were published by the ITU in 1980, before the rise of the Internet. In the late 1990s, VoIP, or Voice over IP, began to gain ground as an alternative to the conventional Public Switched Telephone Network
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G.hn
G.hn
G.hn
is a specification for home networking with data rates up to 2 Gbit/s and operation over four types of legacy wires: telephone wiring, coaxial cables, power lines and POF. A single G.hn semiconductor device is able to network over any of the supported home wire types
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H.324
H.324 is an ITU-T recommendation for voice, video and data transmission over regular analog phone lines. It uses a regular 33,600 bit/s modem for transmission, the H.263 codec for video encoding and G.723.1 for audio. H.324 standard is formally known as Terminal for low bit-rate multimedia communication. H.324 covers the technical requirements for very low bit-rate multimedia telephone terminals operating over the General Switched Telephone Network (GSTN). H.324 terminals provide real-time video, audio, or data, or any combination, between two multimedia telephone terminals over a GSTN voice band network connection. H.324 terminals offering audio communication shall support the G.723.1 audio codec. H.324 terminals offering video communication shall support the H.263 and H.261 video codecs
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