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ISO 4217
ISO 4217
ISO 4217
is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables: * Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list * Table A.2 – Current funds codes * Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies "> A list of exchange rates for various base currencies given by a money changer in Thailand, with the Thailand
Thailand
Baht as the counter (or quote) currency. Note the Korean currency code should be KRW The first two letters of the code are the two letters of the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes (which are also used as the basis for national top-level domains on the Internet
Internet
) and the third is usually the initial of the currency itself
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Local Exchange Trading System
A LOCAL EXCHANGE TRADING SYSTEM (also LOCAL EMPLOYMENT AND TRADING SYSTEM or LOCAL ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM; abbreviated LETS) is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and records transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using locally created currency. LETS allow people to negotiate the value of their own hours or services. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Criteria * 3 Operation * 4 Benefits * 5 Examples * 5.1 Australia * 5.2 North America * 5.3 South America * 5.4 Europe * 5.5 Asia * 5.6 Africa * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYMichael Linton originated the term "Local Exchange Trading System" in 1983 and for a time ran the Comox Valley LETSystems in Courtenay, British Columbia . The system he designed was intended as an adjunct to the national currency , rather than a replacement for it
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Company Scrip
COMPANY SCRIP is scrip (a substitute for government-issued legal tender or currency ) issued by a company to pay its employees. It can only be exchanged in company stores owned by the employers. In the UK , such truck systems have long been formally outlawed under the Truck Acts . In the United States
United States
, mining and logging camps were typically created, owned and operated by a single company. These locations, some quite remote, were often cash poor; even in ones that were not, workers paid in scrip had little choice but to purchase goods at a company store, as exchange into currency, if even available, would exhaust some of the value via the exchange fee. With this economic monopoly , the employer could place large markups on goods, making workers dependent on the company, thus enforcing employee "loyalty "
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Time-based Currency
In economics , a TIME-BASED CURRENCY is an alternative currency or exchange system where the unit of account/value is the person-hour or some other time unit. Some time-based currencies value everyone’s contributions equally: one hour equals one service credit. In these systems, one person volunteers to work for an hour for another person; thus, they are credited with one hour, which they can redeem for an hour of service from another volunteer. Others use time units that might be fractions of an hour (e.g. minutes, ten minutes – 6 units/hour, or 15 minutes – 4 units/hour). While most time-based exchange systems are SERVICE EXCHANGES in that most exchange involves the provision of services that can be measured in a time unit, it is also possible to exchange goods by 'pricing' them in terms of the average national hourly wage rate (e.g. if the average hourly rate is $20/hour, then a commodity valued at $20 in the national currency would be equivalent to 1 hour)
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List Of Fictional Currencies
Fictional currency is the currency used in works of fiction . It may be used in alternative worlds, eras, or realities. The use of "credits" is particularly common in futuristic settings, so much so that Sam Humphries has pointed it out as a cliché: "In any science-fiction movie, anywhere in the galaxy, currency is referred to as 'credits.'" Credits are frequently envisioned as a form of electronic money
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Local Currency
In economics , a LOCAL CURRENCY is a currency that can be spent in a particular geographical locality at participating organisations. A REGIONAL CURRENCY is a form of local currency encompassing a larger geographical area. A local currency acts as a complementary currency to a national currency, rather than replacing it, and aims to encourage spending within a local community, especially with locally-owned businesses. The currency may not be backed by a national government or be legal tender . About 300 complementary currencies, including local currencies, are listed in the Complementary Currency
Currency
Resource Center worldwide database
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List Of Circulating Currencies
This list contains the 180 currencies recognized as legal tender in United Nations
United Nations
(UN) member states , UN observer states , partially recognized or unrecognized states , and their dependencies . Dependencies and unrecognized states are listed here only if another currency is used in their territory that is different from the one of the state that administers them or has jurisdiction over them. CONTENTS * 1 Criteria for inclusion * 2 List of circulating currencies
List of circulating currencies
by state and/or territory * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 References CRITERIA FOR INCLUSIONA currency is a kind of money and medium of exchange . Currency includes paper, cotton, or polymer banknotes and metal coins . States generally have a monopoly on the issuing of currency, although some states share currencies with other states
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Coin
A COIN is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender . They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy , or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins . Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes . Usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation
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Banknote
A BANKNOTE (often known as a BILL, PAPER MONEY, or simply a NOTE) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note , made by a bank , payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, who were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks . National banknotes are generally legal tender , meaning that medium of payment is allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment
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Forgery
FORGERY is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item. Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations . Forging
Forging
money or currency is more often called counterfeiting . But consumer goods may also be counterfeits if they are not manufactured or produced by the designated manufacturer or producer given on the label or flagged by the trademark symbol. When the object forged is a record or document it is often called a false document . This usage of "forgery" does not derive from metalwork done at a forge, but it has a parallel history. A sense of "to counterfeit " is already in the Anglo-French verb forger, meaning "falsify"
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List Of Currencies
For a list of current national currencies, see List of circulating currencies . For a list of alternative currencies, see List of alternative currencies . For a list of digital currencies, see List of digital currencies . For a list of cryptocurrencies, see List of cryptocurrencies . For a list of historical currencies, see List of historical currencies . For a list of fictional currencies, see List of fictional currencies . For a list of currencies with ISO codes, see ISO 4217
ISO 4217
. A list of all currencies , current and historic. The local name of the currency is used in this list, with the adjectival form of the country or region
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Ancient Greek Coinage
The history of ANCIENT GREEK COINAGE can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic , the Classical , the Hellenistic and the Roman . The Archaic period extends from the introduction of coinage to the Greek world during the 7th century BC until the Persian Wars
Persian Wars
in about 480 BC. The Classical period then began, and lasted until the conquests of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in about 330 BC, which began the Hellenistic period, extending until the Roman absorption of the Greek world in the 1st century BC. The Greek cities continued to produce their own coins for several more centuries under Roman rule. The coins produced during this period are called Roman provincial coins or Greek Imperial Coins
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Roman Currency
ROMAN CURRENCY for most of Roman history consisted of gold , silver , bronze , orichalcum and copper coinage . (See: Roman metallurgy ) From its introduction to the Republic , during the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency
Roman currency
saw many changes in form, denomination, and composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary debasement and replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian
Diocletian
. This trend continued into Byzantine times . CONTENTS * 1 Authority to mint coins * 2 History * 2.1 Roman Republic: c
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Mint (coin)
A MINT is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency . The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins . In the beginning, hammered coinage or cast coinage were the chief means of coin minting, with resulting production runs numbering as little as the hundreds or thousands. In modern mints, coin dies are manufactured in large numbers and planchets are made into milled coins by the billions. With the mass production of currency, the production cost is weighed when minting coins. For example, it costs the United States Mint much less than 25 cents to make a quarter (a 25 cent coin), and the difference in production cost and face value (called seigniorage ) helps fund the minting body
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Tin Animal Money
TIN ANIMAL MONEY is early money believed to be used by the royal courts of Malay Peninsula from the 15th century continuing through the 18th century. This Tin Animal Money
Tin Animal Money
later evolved into a form of currency used in Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. The most common shape was the crocodile money, others include tortoises, elephants, fish, crickets, beetles, birds, chickens, and others. Tin Animal Money
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