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IFA Badge Original
Originality is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus distinguishable from reproductions, clones, forgeries, or derivative works.[citation needed] An original work is one not received from others nor one copied from or based upon the work of others.[citation needed]. It is a work created with a unique style and substance. The term "originality" is often applied as a compliment to the creativity of artists, writers, and thinkers.[citation needed] The idea of originality as we[who?] know it was invented by Romanticism,[1] with a notion that is often called romantic originality.[2][3][4] The concept of originality is culturally contingent
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Original (other)
Originality is the quality of novelty or newness in created works. Original or The Originals may also refer to:Contents1 Books and publishing 2 Companies and brands 3 Sports 4 Films and television 5 Music5.1 Bands 5.2 Albums 5.3 Songs 5.4 Websites6 See alsoBooks and publishing[edit]The Original Magazine, arts and culture magazine in Pittsburgh The Originals (comics), a graphic novel by Dave GibbonsCompanies and brands[edit]Original Software, a UK software-testing products and services company The Original Hot Dog Shop, an American restaurant based in PennsylvaniaSports[edit]The Original All Blacks, a New Zealand rugby teamFilms and television[edit]Original (film), a 2009 Danish/Swedish film The Originals (film), a 2017 Egyptian film The Originals (TV series), America
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Review Articles
A review article is an article that summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic.[1] A review article surveys and summarizes previously published studies, rather than reporting new facts or analysis. Review
Review
articles are sometimes also called survey articles or, in news publishing, overview articles. Academic publications that specialize in review articles are known as review journals. Review
Review
articles teach about:the main people working in a field recent major advances and discoveries significant gaps in the research current debates ideas of where research might go nextAcademic publishing[edit] Review
Review
articles in academic journals analyze or discuss research previously published by others, rather than reporting new experimental results.[2][3] An expert's opinion is valuable, but an expert's assessment of the literature can be more valuable
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Sweat Of The Brow
Sweat of the brow
Sweat of the brow
is an intellectual property law doctrine, chiefly related to copyright law. According to this doctrine, an author gains rights through simple diligence during the creation of a work, such as a database, or a directory. Substantial creativity or "originality" is not required. Under a "sweat of the brow" doctrine, the creator of a copyrighted work, even if it is completely unoriginal, is entitled to have his effort and expense protected, and no one else may use such a work without permission, but must instead recreate the work by independent research or effort. The classic example is a telephone directory. In a "sweat of the brow" jurisdiction, such a directory may not be copied, but instead a competitor must independently collect the information to issue a competing directory
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Bridgeman Art Library V. Corel Corp.
In the context of a copyright discussion, Bridgeman refers to Bridgeman Art Library
Bridgeman Art Library
v
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United States District Court For The Southern District Of New York
The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (in case citations, S.D.N.Y.) is a federal district court. Appeals from the Southern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Southern District is one of the most influential and active federal district courts in the United States, largely because of its jurisdiction over New York's major financial centers. On March 12, 2015 Michael Greco was confirmed as U.S
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Novelty (patent)
Novelty is a requirement for a patent claim to be patentable. An invention is not new and therefore not patentable if it was known to the public before the filing date of the patent application, or before its date of priority if the applicant claims priority of an earlier patent application
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United States Court Of Appeals For The Second Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
(in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. Its territory comprises the states of Connecticut, New York, and Vermont, and the court has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:District of Connecticut Eastern District of New York Northern District of New York Southern District of New York Western District of New York District of VermontThe Second Circuit has its clerk's office and hears oral arguments at the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse
Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse
at 40 Foley Square
Foley Square
in Lower Manhattan
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Labor Theory Of Property
The labor theory of property (also called the labor theory of appropriation, labor theory of ownership, labor theory of entitlement, or principle of first appropriation) is a theory of natural law that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources. The theory has been used to justify the homestead principle, which holds that one may gain whole permanent ownership of an unowned natural resource by performing an act of original appropriation. In his Second Treatise on Government, the philosopher John Locke
John Locke
asked by what right an individual can claim to own one part of the world, when, according to the Bible, God gave the world to all humanity in common. He answered that persons own themselves and therefore their own labor
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CCH Canadian Ltd V Law Society Of Upper Canada
CCH Canadian Ltd v Law Society of Upper Canada, [2004] 1 SCR 339,[1] 2004 SCC 13 is a landmark Supreme Court of Canada
Supreme Court of Canada
case that established the threshold of originality and the bounds of fair dealing in Canadian copyright law. A group of publishers sued the Law Society of Upper Canada for copyright infringement for providing photocopy services to researchers
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Scientific Literature
Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature. Academic publishing is the process of contributing the results of one's research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process. Original scientific research published for the first time in scientific journals is called the primary literature. Patents and technical reports, for minor research results and engineering and design work (including computer software), can also be considered primary literature
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Primary Source
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions can be used in library science, and other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions. In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document written by such a person[1]. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources
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Original Research
Research
Research
comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications."[1] It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research
Research
projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole
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Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 B.C.), though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development.[1] The word comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἀνάλυσις (analysis, "a breaking up", from ana- "up, throughout" and lysis "a loosening").[2] As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Alhazen,[3] René Descartes
René Descartes
(Discourse on the Method), and Galileo Galilei
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Supreme Court Of The United States
The Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[2]) is the highest federal court of the United States. Established pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution in 1789, it has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and state court cases involving issues of federal law plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is generally the final interpreter of federal law including the United States
United States
Constitution, but it may act only within the context of a case in which it has jurisdiction
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Painting
Painting
Painting
is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. Painting
Painting
is a mode of creative expression, and can be done in numerous forms. Drawing, gesture (as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.[2] Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism). A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas
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