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Hypoviridae
Hypoviridae is a family of viruses. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently four species in this family, divided among 1 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: host virulence reduction.[1][2]Contents1 Structure 2 Life cycle 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] The diameter is around 50-80 nm. Genomes are linear, around 9-13kb in length. The genome has 1 or 2 open reading frames.[1] Hypoviridae was the first family of viruses described that lacked a capsid.[3] and does not assemble any virion to spread.Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentationHypovirus No true capsidNon-enveloped Linear MonopartiteLife cycle[edit] Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus
RNA virus
replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by cell to cell movement
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Clavaviridae
Clavaviridae is a family of double-stranded viruses that infect archaea. This family was first described by the team led by D. Prangishvili in 2010. There is one genus in this family (Clavavirus). Within this genus, only a single species has been described to date: Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1. The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
word clava meaning stick. Virology[edit] The virons are bacilliform in shape and 143 nanometers (nm) in length and 15.8 nm in diameter.[1][2] One end is pointed and the other is rounded. The structure of the APBV1 virion has been solved by cryo-electron microscopy to near-atomic resolution, revealing how the helical particle is built from an alpha-helical major capsid protein with a unique structural fold.[2] The genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 5.3 kb
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Ampullaviridae
Ampullaviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea of the genus Acidianus.[1] Only one genus in this family has been described, Ampullavirus, which contains one species, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus.[2] The name of the family and genus is derived from the Latin word for bottle, ampulla, due to the virions having the shape of a bottle. The family was first described during an investigation of the microbial flora of hot springs in Italy. Structure and genome[edit] Ampullaviruses have unique morphology, with the virions being bottle-shaped with one narrow end that smoothly expands into a wider end for an overall length of about 230 nm and width of about 75 nm at the broad end. The narrow end projects beyond the viral envelope and is likely used to inject the viral DNA into host cells. The broad end possesses about 20 thin filaments, each that are regularly distributed in a ring
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Ligamenvirales
Ligamenvirales is an order of linear viruses that infect archaea of the kingdom Crenarchaeota
Crenarchaeota
and have double-stranded DNA genomes.[1] The order was established by D. Prangishvili and M. Krupovic in 2012. The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
ligamen, meaning string or thread. Taxonomy[edit] There are two families in this order – Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae. The virons are filamentous with a helical nucleocapsid. At either end are attached either fibers or more complex structures involved in host adhesion. The major coat proteins of both lipothrixviruses and rudiviruses have an unusual four-helix bundle topology.[2] Viruses from the two families share up to ten genes. The genome is non segmented linear double stranded DNA. References[edit]^ Prangishvili D, Krupovic M (2012). "A new proposed taxon for double-stranded DNA viruses, the order "Ligamenvirales"". Arch Virol. 157 (4): 791–795
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Caudovirales
Myoviridae Podoviridae SiphoviridaeThe Caudovirales
Caudovirales
are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").[1] Under the Baltimore classification scheme, the Caudovirales
Caudovirales
are group I viruses as they have double stranded DNA
DNA
(dsDNA) genomes, which can be anywhere from 18,000 base pairs to 500,000 base pairs in length.[2] The virus particles have a distinct shape; each virion has an icosohedral head that contains the viral genome, and is attached to a flexible tail by a connector protein.[2] The order encompasses a wide range of viruses, many of which containing genes of similar nucleotide sequence and function. Some tailed bacteriophage genomes can vary quite significantly in nucleotide sequence, however, even among the same genus
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Hytrosaviridae
Glossinavirus Muscavirus Hytrosaviridae is a family of double stranded DNA viruses that infect insects.[1] The name is derived from Hytrosa, sigla from the Greek Hypertrophia for 'hypertrophy' and 'sialoadenitis' for 'salivary gland inflammation.'Contents1 Description 2 Taxonomy 3 Host species 4 Virology 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] The viruses in this family are non occluded, enveloped, rod-shaped virons measuring 500–1,000 nanometers (nm) in length and 50–100 nm in diameter. The virons contain at least 35 polypeptides which range in size from 10 to 200 kiloDaltons. The genome is a circular double stranded DNA molecule ranging in size from 120 to 190 kilobases
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Vesicle (biology)
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm. Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes (not to be confused with lysosomes). If there is only one phospholipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar liposome vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar. The membrane enclosing the vesicle is also a lamellar phase, similar to that of the plasma membrane and vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. Vesicles perform a variety of functions. Because it is separated from the cytosol, the inside of the vesicle can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment
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Capsid
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers. The observable 3-dimensional morphological subunits, which may or may not correspond to individual proteins, are called capsomeres. The capsid encloses the genetic material of the virus. Capsids are broadly classified according to their structure. The majority of viruses have capsids with either helical or icosahedral[2][3] structure. Some viruses, such as bacteriophages, have developed more complicated structures due to constraints of elasticity and electrostatics.[4] The icosahedral shape, which has 20 equilateral triangular faces, approximates a sphere, while the helical shape resembles the shape of a spring, taking the space of a cylinder but not being a cylinder itself.[5] The capsid faces may consist of one or more proteins
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Dinodnavirus
Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus 01 Dinodnavirus is a genus of viruses that infect dinoflagellates.[1] This genus belongs to the clade of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. The name is derived from 'dino' (dinoflagellate) and DNA (from its genome). The type species is Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus 01. Virology[edit] The virus has an isosahedral capsid ~200 nanometers in diameter. The genome is a single molecule of double stranded DNA of a ~356-kilobases. It infects the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama. During replication virions emerge from a specific cytoplasm compartment - the 'viroplasm' - which is created by the virus.[2] Taxonomy[edit] The taxonomic position of this genus is unclear at present. The type species was originally thought to belong to the family Phycodnaviridae
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Papillomaviridae
Alphapapillomavirus Betapapillomavirus Chipapillomavirus Deltapapillomavirus Dyodeltapapillomavirus Dyoepsilonpapillomavirus Dyoetapapillomavirus Dyoiotapapillomavirus Dyokappapillomavirus Dyolambdapapillomavirus Dyomupapillomavirus Dyonupapillomavirus Dyoomikronpapillomavirus Dyopipapillomavirus Dyorhopapillomavirus Dyosigmapapillomavirus Dyothetapapillomavirus Dyoxipapillomavirus Dyozetapapillomavirus Epsilonpapillomavirus Etapapillomavirus Gammapapillomavirus Iotapapillomavirus Kappapapillomavirus Lambdapapillomavirus Mupapillomavirus Nupapillomavirus Omegapapillomavirus Omikronpapillomavirus Phipapillomavirus Pipapillomavirus Psipapillomavirus Rhopapillomavirus Sigmapapillomavirus Taupapillomavirus Thetapapillomavirus Upsilonpapillomavirus Xipapillomavirus Zetapapillomavirus Papillomaviridae
Papillomaviridae
is an ancient taxonomic family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, collectively known as papillomaviruses
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Papovavirus
Polyomavirus PapillomavirusA papovavirus is any member of the former virus family of Papovaviridae.[1] They are mainly associated with various neoplasms in mammals.[1] The family of Papovaviridae is no longer used in recent taxonomy, but is split into the Papillomaviridae
Papillomaviridae
and the Polyomaviridae.[2] The name derives from three abbreviations: Pa for papillomavirus, Po for polyomavirus, and Va for "vacuolating" (simian vacuolating virus 40 or SV40, which is now known to be part of the polyomavirus genus). Papovaviruses are
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Polyomaviridae
Polyomaviridae
Polyomaviridae
is a family of viruses whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds.[1][2] As of the most recent (2016) taxonomy release by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, there were 77 recognized species in this family contained within four genera, as well as three species that could not be assigned to a genus.[2] Of these, 13 species are known to infect humans.[3][4] Most of these viruses, such as
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Adenoviridae
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome
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