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Hypostasis (philosophy)
Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else. In Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
the hypostasis of the soul, the intellect (nous) and "the one" was addressed by Plotinus. In Christian theology, a hypostasis or person is one of the three persons of the Trinity.[1]Contents1 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy 2 Christian theology2.1 Trinitarian definitions3 See also 4 References Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy[edit] Pseudo-Aristotle used hypostasis in the sense of material substance.[2] Neoplatonists argue that beneath the surface phenomena that present themselves to our senses are three higher spiritual principles or hypostases, each one more sublime than the preceding
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Prosopon
Prosopon
Prosopon
(/ˈprɒsəpɒn/[1][2] or /proʊˈsoʊpən/;[3] from Ancient Greek: πρόσωπον; plural: Ancient Greek: πρόσωπα prosopa) is a technical term encountered in Christian theology. It is most often translated as "person", and as such is sometimes confused with hypostasis, which is sometimes also translated as "person." Prosopon
Prosopon
originally meant "face" or "mask" and derives from Greek theatre, in which actors on a stage wore masks to reveal their character and emotional state to the audience. Both prosopon and hypostasis played central roles in the development of theology about the Trinity
Trinity
and about Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
(Christology) in the debates of the fourth through seventh centuries. The term is used for "the self-manifestation of an individual" that can be extended by means of other things
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Duns Scotus
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t eJohn Duns, commonly called Duns
Duns
Scotus (/ˈdʌnz ˈskoʊtəs, ˈskɒtəs/; c. 1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
(together with Thomas Aquinas
Aquinas
and William of Ockham).[6] Scotus has had considerable influence on both Catholic and secular thought. The doctrines for which he is best known are the "univocity of being," that existence is the most abstract concept we have, applicable to everything that exists; the formal distinction, a way of distinguishing between different aspects of the same thing; and the idea of haecceity, the property supposed to be in each individual thing that makes it an individual
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Hypokeimenon
Hypokeimenon (Greek: ὑποκείμενον), later often material substratum, is a term in metaphysics which literally means the "underlying thing" (Latin: subiectum). To search for the hypokeimenon is to search for that substance which persists in a thing going through change—its basic essence. Overview[edit] According to Aristotle's definition,[1] hypokeimenon is something which can be predicated by other things, but cannot be a predicate of others. The existence of a material substratum was posited by John Locke, with conceptual similarities to Baruch Spinoza's substance and Immanuel Kant's concept of the noumenon (in The Critique of Pure Reason). Locke theorised that when all sensible properties were abstracted away from an object, such as its colour, weight, density or taste, there would still be somet
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Hypostatic Abstraction
Hypostatic abstraction
Hypostatic abstraction
in mathematical logic, also known as hypostasis or subjectal abstraction, is a formal operation that transforms a predicate into a relation; for example "Honey is sweet" is transformed into "Honey has sweetness". The relation is created between the original subject and a new term that represents the property expressed by the original predicate. Hypostasis changes a propositional formula of the form X is Y to another one of the form X has the property of being Y or X has Y-ness. The logical functioning of the second object Y-ness consists solely in the truth-values of those propositions that have the corresponding abstract property Y as the predicate
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Instantiation Principle
The principle of instantiation or principle of exemplification is the concept in metaphysics and logic that there can be no uninstantiated or unexemplified properties (or universals). In other words, it is impossible for a property to exist which is not had by some object. Consider a chair. Presumably chairs did not exist 150,000 years ago. Thus, according to the principle of instantiation, the property of being a chair did not exist 150,000 years ago either. Similarly, if all red objects were to suddenly go out of existence, then the property of being red would likewise go out of existence. To make the principle more plausible in the light of these examples, the existence of properties or universals is not tied to their actual existence now, but to their existence in space-time considered as a whole.[1] Thus, any property which is, has been, or will be instantiated exists
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Noema
Noema (plural: noemata) derives from the Greek word νόημα meaning "thought" or "what is thought about."[1] Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
used noema as a technical term in phenomenology to stand for the object or content of a thought, judgement, or perception, but its precise meaning in his work has remained a matter of controversy.Contents1 Husserl's noema 2 Interpreting Husserl 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 Ref
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Edmund Husserl
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl
Husserl
(/ˈhʊsərl/;[14] German: [ˈhʊsɐl]; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938)[15] was a German[16][17] philosopher who established the school of phenomenology. In his early work, he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic based on analyses of intentionality. In his mature work, he sought to develop a systematic foundational science based on the so-called phenomenological reduction. Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl
Husserl
re-defined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy
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Prakṛti
Prakṛti, also Prakṛiti or Prakṛuti (from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language प्रकृति, prakṛti), means "nature".[1][2] It is a key concept in Hinduism, formulated by its Samkhya
Samkhya
school, and refers to the primal matter with three different innate qualities (Gu
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Principle Of Individuation
The principle of individuation is a criterion that individuates or numerically distinguishes the members of the kind for which it is given, that is by which we can supposedly determine, regarding any kind of thing, when we have more than one of them or not.[1] It is also known as a 'criterion of identity' or 'indiscernibility principle'. The history of the consideration of such a principle begins with Aristotle.[2] It was much discussed by the medieval philosopher Duns Scotus
Duns Scotus
(c
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Persona
A persona (plural personae or personas), in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor. The word is derived from Latin, where it originally referred to a theatrical mask.[1] The Latin word probably derived from the Etruscan word "phersu", with the same meaning, and that from the Greek πρόσωπον (prosōpon). Its meaning in the latter Roman period changed to indicate a "character" of a theatrical performance or court of law,[citation needed] when it became apparent that different individuals could assume the same role, and legal attributes such as rights, powers, and duties followed the role. The same individuals as actors could play different roles, each with its own legal attributes, sometimes even in the same court appearance
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Monotheism
Monotheism
Monotheism
has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.[1][2][3] A broader definition of monotheism is the belief in one god.[4][5][6][7] A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform (panentheistic) monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity.[8]
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Reification (fallacy)
Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete real event or physical entity.[1][2] In other words, it is the error of treating something that is not concrete, such as an idea, as a concrete thing. A common case of reification is the confusion of a model with reality: "the map is not the territory". Reification is part of normal usage of natural language (just like metonymy for instance), as well as of literature, where a reified abstraction is intended as a figure of speech, and actually understood as such
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Substance Theory
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. A thing-in-itself is a property-bearer that must be distinguished from the properties it bears.[1] Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world. According to monistic views, there is only one substance. Stoicism
Stoicism
and Spinoza, for example, hold monistic views, that pneuma or God, respectively, is the one substance in the world. These modes of thinking are sometimes associated with the idea of immanence. Dualism sees the world as being composed of two fundamental substances, for example, the Cartesian substance dualism of mind and matter
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