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Hutchinsonite
Hutchinsonite
Hutchinsonite
is a sulfosalt mineral of thallium, arsenic and lead with formula (Tl,Pb)2As5S9. Hutchinsonite
Hutchinsonite
is a rare hydrothermal mineral. It was first discovered in Binnental, Switzerland
Switzerland
in 1904 and named after Cambridge mineralogist Arthur Hutchinson, F.R.S. (1866–1937). See also[edit]List of minerals List of minerals
List of minerals
named after peopleReferences[edit]^ Handbook of Mineralogy ^ Hutchinsonite
Hutchinsonite
at Mindat.org ^ Hutchinsonite
Hutchinsonite
at WebmineralFurther reading[edit]Prior, G. T. (1905). "A New Thallium
Thallium
Mineral". Nature. 71 (1849): 534. Bibcode:1905Natur..71Q.534P. doi:10.1038/071534b0. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hutchinsonite.This article about a specific sulfide mineral is a stub
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Santiago De Chuco Province
The Santiago de Chuco Province is one of twelve provinces of the La Libertad Region in Peru. The capital of this province is the city of Santiago de Chuco.Contents1 Political division 2 History 3 Places of interest 4 See alsoPolitical division[edit] The province is divided into eight districts, which are:Angasmarca Cachicadán Mollebamba Mollepata Quiruvilca Santa Cruz de Chuca Santiago de Chuco SitabambaHistory[edit] On July 23, 1610, a group of immigrants were allowed to found a village, which would serve as capital city and as headquarters for both mining and related wheat sowing activities
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Transparency And Translucency
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale (one where the dimensions investigated are much, much larger than the wavelength of the photons in question), the photons can be said to follow Snell's Law. Translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not necessarily (again, on the macroscopic scale) follow Snell's law; the photons can be scattered at either of the two interfaces where there is a change in index of refraction, or internally. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Sulfide Mineral
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion. Some sulfide minerals are economically important as metal ores
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Arthur Hutchinson (mineralogist)
Arthur Hutchinson OBE FRS (6 July 1866 – 12 December 1937) was a British mineralogist. He was master of Pembroke College, Cambridge from 1928 to 1937. He is buried in the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, with his wife Evaline Hutchinson, who lived from 1864 to 1960. Their son was G. Evelyn Hutchinson, also an academic and limnologist.[1] External links[edit]Arthur Hutchinson at Find a GraveReferences[edit]^ G. Evelyn Hutchinson and the Invention of Modern Ecology by Nancy G. Slack, Published by Yale University Press, 2010‘HUTCHINSON, Arthur’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2008; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2007 accessed 28 Feb 2013 Smith, W. Campbell (1 January 1939). "Arthur Hutchinson. 1866-1937". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 2 (7): 483–491. doi:10.2307/769001 (inactive 2017-01-31). JSTOR 769001.  W. C. Smith (2004). "Hutchinson, Arthur (1866–1937)"
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Binnental
The Binntal (German: "Binn valley") is a valley of the Alps, located on the north side of the Lepontine Alps in the Swiss canton of Valais. The valley is drained by the Binna, a tributary of the Rhone, at Grengiols. The valley is named after Binn (1,400 m), the main settlement. Other villages or localities are Ausserbinn (1,291 m), Heiligkreuz (1,458 m) and Fäld (1,547 m). The mountains in the Binntal generally exceed 3,000 metres. The highest are the Helsenhorn, the Turbhorn and the Ofenhorn
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Hydrothermal
Hydrothermal circulation
Hydrothermal circulation
in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ὕδωρ, water,[1] and θέρμη, heat [1]). Hydrothermal circulation
Hydrothermal circulation
occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust
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Lead
Lead
Lead
is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead
Lead
is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead
Lead
has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead
Compounds of lead
are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Arsenic
Arsenic
Arsenic
is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon. Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides
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Birefringence
Birefringence
Birefringence
is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.[1] These optically anisotropic materials are said to be birefringent (or birefractive). The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference between refractive indices exhibited by the material. Crystals
Crystals
with non-cubic crystal structures are often birefringent, as are plastics under mechanical stress. Birefringence
Birefringence
is responsible for the phenomenon of double refraction whereby a ray of light, when incident upon a birefringent material, is split by polarization into two rays taking slightly different paths. This effect was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669, who observed it[2] in calcite, a crystal having one of the strongest birefringences
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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity
Specific gravity
is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance for liquids is nearly always water at its densest (at 4 °C / 39.2 °F); for gases it is air at room temperature (20°C / 68° F). Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).A US Navy Aviation Boatswain's Mate tests the specific gravity of JP-5 fuelTemperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry
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Refractive Index
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. It is defined as n = c v , displaystyle n= frac c v , where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times faster in vacuum than in the water. Refraction
Refraction
of a light rayThe refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. This is the first documented use of refractive indices and is described by Snell's law
Snell's law
of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2
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