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Hussite Wars
Hussite
Hussite
victory, particularly for Moderate Hussites[1] Hussite
Hussite
church becomes free from the Papacy[1] Compromise between
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Bohemian War (1468-1478)
The Bohemian War (1468–78) began when the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
was invaded by the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus. Matthias invaded with the pretext of returning Bohemia to Catholicism; at the time, it was ruled by the Hussite king, George of Poděbrad. Matthias' invasion was largely successful, leading to his acquisition of the southern and eastern parts of the country. Its core lands however, centered on Prague, were never taken. Ultimately both Matthias and Poděbrad would proclaim themselves king, though neither ever acquired all the necessary subordinate titles. When Poděbrad died in 1471, his successor Vladislaus II continued the fight against Matthias. In 1478, the war ended following the treaties of Brno and the Olomouc
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Electorate Of Mainz
Mainz
Mainz
(/maɪnts/; German: [maɪ̯nt͡s] ( listen); Latin: Mogontiacum, French: Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
in Germany. It was the capital of the Electorate of Mainz
Electorate of Mainz
at the time of the Holy Roman Empire. In antiquity Mainz
Mainz
was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire; it was founded as a military post by the Romans in the late 1st century BC and became the provincial capital of Germania Superior. During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Duchy Of Austria
The Duchy of Austria
Austria
(German: Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria
Margraviate of Austria
(Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg
Babenberg
became extinct, the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria
Austria
became the ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy
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Duchy Of Bavaria
The Duchy of Bavaria
Bavaria
(German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom. It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (duces) under Frankish overlordship. A new duchy was created from this area during the decline of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
in the late ninth century. It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
and the Holy Roman Empire. During internal struggles of the ruling Ottonian dynasty, the Bavarian territory was considerably diminished by the separation of the newly established Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
in 976. Between 1070 and 1180 the Holy Roman Emperors were again strongly opposed by Bavaria, especially by the ducal House of Welf
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Margraviate Of Brandenburg
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (German: Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe. Brandenburg developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends. It derived one of its names from this inheritance, the March of Brandenburg (Mark Brandenburg). Its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. The state thus became additionally known as Electoral Brandenburg or the Electorate of Brandenburg (Kurbrandenburg or Kurfürstentum Brandenburg). The House of Hohenzollern came to the throne of Brandenburg in 1415. Under Hohenzollern leadership, Brandenburg grew rapidly in power during the 17th century and inherited the Duchy of Prussia
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County Palatine Of The Rhine
The County Palatine of the Rhine (German: Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (German: Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate[1] (German: Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine
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Duchy Of Thuringia
The Duchy of Thuringia
Thuringia
was an eastern frontier march of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia, established about 631 by King Dagobert I
Dagobert I
after his troops had been defeated by the forces of the Slavic confederation of Samo
Samo
at the Battle of Wogastisburg. It was recreated in the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and its dukes appointed by the king until it was absorbed by the Saxon dukes in 908
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Electorate Of Trier
The Electorate of Trier (German: Kurfürstentum Trier or Kurtrier), traditionally known in English by its French name of Trèves, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the prince-archbishop of Trier (Erzbistum Trier), also prince-elector of the empire. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Cologne and the Electorate of Mainz, among which Mainz ranked first. The capital of the electorate was Trier, with the main residence of the Elector being Koblenz from the 16th century onward
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Electorate Of Cologne
The Electorate of Cologne
Cologne
(German: Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne
Cologne
(German: Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the Hochstift
Hochstift
— the temporal possessions — of the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne
Cologne
and ruled by him in his capacity as prince-elector. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Mainz and the Electorate of Trier
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a European state from the 13th century[1] until 1795,[2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija.[3][4][5] The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine, Poland
Poland
and Russia
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Kingdom Of Hungary
Magyar Királyság  (Hungarian) Regnum Hungariae  (Latin) Königreich Ungarn  (German)1000–1918 1920–1946Flag (1867-1918)Coat of armsMotto Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae[1] "Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"Anthem Himnusz HymnRoyal anthem God save, God protect Our Emperor, Our Country!Kingdoms of Hungary (dark green) and Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914Capital BudapestHistorical capitals:Esztergom (10th to mid-13th century) Buda (mid-13th century to 1541)a Pressburg (1536–1783) Debrecen (1849) Székesfehérvár (place of diets, royal seat, crowning and burial site from 1000 to 1543)Languages Official languages:Latin (1000–1784; 1790–1844) German (1784–1790; 1849–1867) Hungarian (1836–1849; 1867–1946)Other spoken languages: Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, Italian, Ruthenian, Carpathian Romani,
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portalv t eThe Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[2] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria
Umbria
and Romagna, and portions of Emilia
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Order Of Malta
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller
Hospitaller
Order of Saint John of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of Rhodes
Rhodes
and of Malta
Malta
(Latin: Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta
(SMOM) or Order of Malta, is a Roman Catholic
Catholic
lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.[5] It was founded as the Knights Hospitaller
Hospitaller
circa 1099 in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, by the Blessed Gerard, making it the world's oldest surviving chivalric order.[6] Headquartered in Palazzo Malta
Palazzo Malta
in Rome, its mission is summed up in its motto: Tuitio fidei et obsequium pauperum, "Defence of the (Catholic) faith and assistance to the poor"
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revol
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