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Hung Taiji
Tiancong (天聰) Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᠰᡠᠷᡝ abkai sure Mongolian: ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ Тэнгэрийн сэцэн Chongde (崇德) Manchu: ᠸᡝᠰᠢᡥᡠᠨ ᠡᠷᡩᡝᠮᡠᠩᡬᡝ wesihun erdemungge Mongolian: ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠡᠢ Дээд эрдэмт : 1626-1636 (Tiancong of Later Jin) 1636-1643 (Chongde of Qing Dynasty)Posthumous nameEmperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Wen (in 1643) 應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝文皇帝 Manchu: Genggiyen šu hūwangdi (ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ ᡧᡠ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ)Temple nameChinese: Taizong (太宗) Manchu: taidzung (ᡨᠠᡳᡯ᠊ᡠ᠊ᠩ)House Aisin GioroFather NurhaciMother Empress XiaocigaoThis article contains Manchu
Manchu
text
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Khong Tayiji
Khong Tayiji (Mongolian: ᠬᠤᠩ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ, хун тайж;Manchu: ᡥᠣᠩ ᡨᠠᡳᠵᡳ, Hong Taiji) also spelled Qong Tayiji, is a title of the Mongols. Khong Tayiji derives from Chinese Huangtaizi (皇太子; crown prince). At first it also meant crown prince in Mongolian. It was originally given only to descendants of Genghis Khan. In the Mongol tradition, a khan was unable to appoint the successor, instead the successor was elected in the kurultai after the khan's death. However Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
(who founded the Yuan Dynasty) broke this tradition, and installed his second son Zhenjin (Chingem) as Crown Prince. After Chingem died in 1286, the seal of Crown prince
Crown prince
was passed to Chingem's third son Temür in 1293. However, Temür was never formally appointed as the Crown Prince and still not the definite successor
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Yuan Chonghuan
Yuan Chonghuan
Yuan Chonghuan
(6 June 1584 – 22 September 1630), courtesy name Yuansu or Ziru, was a politician, military general and writer who served under the Ming dynasty. Widely regarded as a patriot in Chinese culture, he is best known for defending Liaoning
Liaoning
from Jurchen invaders during the Later Jin invasion of the Ming. As a general, Yuan Chonghuan excelled as a cannoneer and sought to incorporate European cannon designs into the Ming arsenal. Yuan's military career reached its height when he defeated the Jurchen ruler, Nurhaci, and his army in the first Battle of Ningyuan. Later on, Yuan also defeated Nurhaci's son and successor, Hong Taiji, and his 200,000-strong army composed of mostly Mongol soldiers at the second Battle of Ningyuan
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Han Chinese
The Han Chinese, Han people[27][28][29] or simply Han[28][29][30] (/hɑːn/;[31] Mandarin: [xân]; Han characters: 漢人 (Mandarin pinyin: Hànrén; literally "Han people"[32]) or 漢族 (pinyin: Hànzú; literally "Han ethnicity"[33] or "Han ethnic group"[34])) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation.[35] They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are mostly concentrated in Mainland China, where they make up about 92% of the total population.[2] The
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Lifanyuan
The Lifan Yuan (Chinese: 理藩院; pinyin: Lǐfànyuàn; Manchu: Tulergi golo be dasara jurgan; Mongolian: Гадаад Монголын төрийг засах явдлын яам, γadaγadu mongγul un törü-yi jasaqu yabudal-un yamun) was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.Contents1 Name 2 Function 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingName[edit] The name Lifan Yuan has various translations in English, including the Board for National Minority Affairs,[1] Court of Territorial Affairs,[2] Board for the Administration of Outlying Regions,[3] Office for Relations with Principalities,[4] Office of Barbarian Control,[5] Office of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs[6] and Court of Colonial Affairs, etc
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Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria
(simplified Chinese: 满洲; traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) was a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria
Manchuria
can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China[1][2][3] or a larger region divided between China
China
and Russia
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Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia
/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. Mongolia
Mongolia
does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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Korea
Korea
Korea
(/kəˈriːə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea
Korea
(officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea
Korea
is bordered by China
China
to the northwest and Russia
Russia
to the northeast. It is separated from Japan
Japan
to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan
Japan
(East Sea). Korea
Korea
emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla
Unified Silla
to the south and Balhae
Balhae
to the north
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Banner System
Later Jin invasion of Joseon Qing conquest of MingBattle of Ningyuan Battle of Shanhai PassQing invasion of Joseon Revolt of the Three Feudatories Ten Great Campaigns First Opium War Second Opium War Taiping Rebellion Boxer Rebellion Xinhai RevolutionThis article contains Manchu
Manchu
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Manchu alphabets.The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
(in Manchu: ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ jakūn gūsa, Chinese: 八旗; pinyin: bāqí) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
into which all Manchu
Manchu
households were placed. In war, the Eight Banners functioned as armies, but the banner system was also the basic organizational framework of all of Manchu
Manchu
society
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Mongol
The Mongols
Mongols
(Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɡɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia
Buryatia
and Kalmykia. The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language
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Tibetan Buddhism
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa
Kadampa
Buddhism Shambhala
Shambhala
BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuit
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Lama
Lama
Lama
(Tibetan: བླ་མ་, Wylie: bla-ma; "chief" or "high priest"[1]) is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma
Dhamma
in Tibetan Buddhism. The name is similar to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term guru.[2] Historically, the term was used for venerated spiritual masters[3][4] or heads of monasteries.[2] Today the title can be used as an honorific title conferred on a monk,[2][4] nun or (in the Nyingma, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Sakya
Sakya
schools) advanced tantric practitioner to designate a level of spiritual attainment and authority to teach, or may be part of a title such as Dalai Lama[4] or Panchen Lama[4] applied to a lineage of reincarnate lamas (Tulkus). Perhaps due to misunderstandings by early western scholars attempting to understand Tibetan Buddhism, the term lama has historically been erroneously applied to Tibetan monks in general
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Yalu River
The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River
River
or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea
North Korea
and China. Together with the Tumen River
River
to its east, and a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea
North Korea
and China
China
and is notable as a site involved in military conflicts such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, World War II, and the Korean War.Contents1 Name 2 Geography 3 History 4 Economy 5 Crossings 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksName[edit] There are two theories regarding the origin of the river's name. One theory is that the name derived from "Yalv ula" in the Manchu language. The Manchu word "Yalu" means "the boundary between two countries"
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Injo Of Joseon
Injo of Joseon
Joseon
(7 December 1595 – 17 June 1649, r. 1623–1649) was the sixteenth king of the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty in Korea. He was the grandson of Seonjo and son of Grand Prince Jeongwon
Prince Jeongwon
(정원군). King Injo was king during both the first and second Manchu invasions, which ended with the surrender of Joseon
Joseon
to the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1636.Contents1 Biography1.1 Birth and background 1.2 The coup of 1623 1.3 Yi Gwal Rebellion 1.4 War with Manchus 1.5 Death of the Crown Prince2 Legacy 3 Family 4 His full posthumous name 5 Modern depictions 6 See also 7 ReferencesBiography[edit] Birth and background[edit] King Injo was born in 1595 as a son of Grandprince Jeongwon,[1] whose father was the ruling monarch King Seonjo
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Imperial Ancestral Temple
Coordinates: 39°54′35.87″N 116°23′36.75″E / 39.9099639°N 116.3935417°E / 39.9099639; 116.3935417The Hall for Worship of AncestorsThe Imperial Ancestral Temple, or Taimiao (simplified Chinese: 太庙; traditional Chinese: 太廟; pinyin: Tàimiào) of Beijing, is a historic site in the Imperial City, just outside the Forbidden City, where during both the Ming and Qing Dynasties, sacrificial ceremonies were held on the most important festival occasions in honor of the imperial family's ancestors.[1] The temple, which resembles the Forbidden City's ground plan, is a cluster of buildings in three large courtyards separated by walls. The main hall inside the temple is the Hall for Worship of Ancestors, which is one of only four buildings in Beijing
Beijing
to stand on a three-tiered platform, a hint that it was the most sacred site in imperial Beijing
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Kowtow
Kowtow, which is borrowed from kau tau in Cantonese
Cantonese
(koutou in Mandarin Chinese), is the act of deep respect shown by prostration, that is, kneeling and bowing so low as to have one's head touching the ground. An alternative Chinese term is ketou; however, the meaning is somewhat altered: kou (叩) has the general meaning of knock, whereas ke (磕) has the general meaning of "touch upon (a surface)", tou (頭) meaning head. The date of this custom's origin is probably sometime between the Spring and Autumn Period, or the Warring States Period of China's history because it is already known to have been a custom by the time of the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
(221 BC - 206 BC).[citation needed] In East Asian culture, the kowtow is the highest sign of reverence. It was widely used to show reverence for one's elders, superiors, and especially the Emperor, as well as for religious and cultural objects of worship
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