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Human Rights In Kyrgyzstan
HUMAN RIGHTS IN KYRGYZSTAN improved greatly after the ouster of President Askar Akayev in the 2005 Tulip Revolution and the installment of a more democratic government under Roza Otunbayeva . The country now faces political uncertainty as it attempts to sustain a democratic system. Corruption and instability continue to be noted, however. Formerly a republic of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
became independent in 1991. Remaining reasonably stable throughout most of the 1990s, the country's young democracy showed relative promise under the leadership of Akayev, but moved towards autocracy and authoritarianism by the early 2000s, achieving a 5.5 rating from Freedom House in 2000
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Orange Revolution
The ORANGE REVOLUTION (Ukrainian : Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine
Ukraine
from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud . Kiev
Kiev
, the Ukrainian capital, was the focal point of the movement's campaign of civil resistance , with thousands of protesters demonstrating daily. Nationwide, the democratic revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience , sit-ins , and general strikes organized by the opposition movement
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Human Rights
HUMAN RIGHTS are moral principles or norms that describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law . They are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being," and which are "inherent in all human beings" regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status. They are applicable everywhere and at every time in the sense of being universal , and they are egalitarian in the sense of being the same for everyone. They are regarded as requiring empathy and the rule of law and imposing an obligation on persons to respect the human rights of others, and it is generally considered that they should not be taken away except as a result of due process based on specific circumstances; for example, human rights may include freedom from unlawful imprisonment , torture and execution
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Non-governmental Organization
A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) is a nonprofit organization that is independent of governments and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II
World War II
, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development , particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3.7 million. Russia has 277,000 NGOs
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Child Labor
CHILD LABOUR refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations . Legislation across the world prohibit child labour. These laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, certain categories of work such as those by Amish children, some forms of child work common among indigenous American children, and others. Child labour has existed to varying extents, through most of history. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many children aged 5–14 from poorer families still worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European powers
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Human Rights Watch
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (HRW) is an American-founded international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights
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Ethnic Minorities
A MINORITY GROUP refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority , those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and it may be defined by law. Rather than a relational "social group ", as the term would indicate, "minority group" refers to the above-described. The differentiation can be based on one or more observable human characteristics, including: ethnicity, race, religion, caste, gender, wealth, health or sexual orientation. Usage of the term is applied to various situations and civilizations within history despite its popular misassociation with a numerical, statistical minority (Barzilai, 2010). In the social sciences , the term "minority" is sometimes used to describe social power relations between dominant and subordinate groups, rather than simply indicating demographic variation within a population
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Autocracy
An AUTOCRACY is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d\'état or mass insurrection ). Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy
(such as Saudi Arabia) and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power, the Tsar
Tsar
for example was styled, "Autocrat of all the Russias", as late as the early 20th century
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Authoritarianism
AUTHORITARIANISM is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms . Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability under an authoritarian regime. Juan Linz 's influential 1964 description of authoritarianism characterized authoritarian political systems by four qualities: * limited political pluralism ; that is, such regimes place constraints on political institutions and groups like legislatures , political parties and interest groups ; * a basis for legitimacy based on emotion, especially the identification of the regime as a necessary evil to combat "easily recognizable societal problems" such as underdevelopment or insurgency ; * minimal social mobilization most often caused by constraints on the public such as suppression of political opponents and anti-regime activity; * informally defined executive power with often vague and shifting powers
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News Media
The NEWS MEDIA or NEWS INDUSTRY are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media (newspapers , newsmagazines ), broadcast news (radio and television ), and more recently the Internet
Internet
(online newspapers , news blogs , etc.). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Broadcasting * 2.1 Television
Television
* 3 Newspapers * 3.1 Print journalism * 4 Newsmagazines * 5 Newsreels * 6 Online journalism * 7 News
News
coverage and new media * 8 Media integrity * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links ETYMOLOGYA MEDIUM (plural MEDIA) is a carrier of something. Common things carried by media include information , art, or physical objects. A medium may provide transmission or storage of information or both
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Religious
RELIGION is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places , ethics , or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine , sacred things , faith , a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture
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Human Trafficking
HUMAN TRAFFICKING is the trade of humans , most commonly for the purpose of forced labour , sexual slavery , or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage , or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking
Human trafficking
can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking
Human trafficking
is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation . Human trafficking is the trade in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another
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MVD
The MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (MOI, Russian : Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, MINISTERSTVO VNUTRENNIKH DEL, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia
Russia
. Its predecessor was founded in 1802 by Alexander I in Imperial Russia
Russia
. The Ministry is headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
. The current Minister of Internal Affairs is General of Police Vladimir Kolokoltsev , who was the Moscow
Moscow
Police
Police
Commissioner between 2009 and 2012
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Amnesty International
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL (commonly known as AMNESTY and AI) is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights that claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organisation is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated." Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was founded in London
London
in 1961, following the publication of the article " The Forgotten Prisoners " in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyer Peter Benenson . Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to mobilize public opinion to put pressure on governments that let abuse take place. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights"
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Prisoner Of Conscience
PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE (POC) is a term coined by Peter Benenson in a 28 May 1961 article (" The Forgotten Prisoners ") for the London Observer newspaper. Most often associated with the human rights organisation Amnesty International
Amnesty International
, the term can refer to anyone imprisoned because of their race , sexual orientation , religion, or political views. It also refers to those who have been imprisoned and/or persecuted for the non-violent expression of their conscientiously held beliefs
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Agriculture In Kyrgyzstan
Agriculture
Agriculture
in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
is a significant sector of the economy . According to the CIA World Factbook , it comprises 18% of the total GDP and occupies 48% of the total labor force. Only 6.8% of the total land area is used for crop cultivation, but 44% of the land is used as pastures for livestock. Because of the many mountains of Kyrgyzstan, animal husbandry remains a significant part of the agricultural economy. Cultivation is centered in the Ferghana Valley , Talas Province , and Chuy Province . Among Kyrgyzstan's agricultural products are tobacco , cotton , potatoes , vegetables, grapes , fruits, and berries. As far as total production, the largest crop is assorted types of animal fodder to feed the livestock of the country. The second largest crop is winter wheat, followed by barley, corn, and rice
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