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Human Rights
Human rights
Human rights
are moral principles or norms[1] that describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law.[2] They are commonly understood as inalienable[3] fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being",[4] and which are "inherent in all human beings"[5] regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status.[3] They are applicable everywhere and at every time in the sense of being universal,[1] and they are egalitarian in the sense of being the same f
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Unlawful Imprisonment
False imprisonment occurs when a person is restricted in their personal movement within any area without justification or consent.[1] Actual physical restraint is not necessary for false imprisonment to occur. False imprisonment is a common-law felony and a tort. It applies to private as well as governmental detention
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Municipal Law
Municipal law is the national, domestic, or internal law of a sovereign state defined in opposition to international law. Municipal law includes many levels of law: not only national law but also state, provincial, territorial, regional, or local law. While the state may regard them as distinct categories of law, international law is largely uninterested in the distinction and treats them all as one[citation needed]. Similarly, international law makes no distinction between the ordinary law of the state and its constitutional law. Article 27 of the Vienna Convention on the Law
Law
of Treaties from 1969 provides that if a treaty conflicts with a state's municipal law (including the state's constitution), the state is still obliged to meet its obligations under the treaty
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Victims' Rights
Victims' rights are legal rights afforded to victims of crime. These may include the right to restitution, the right to a victims' advocate, the right not to be excluded from criminal justice proceedings, and the right to speak at criminal justice proceedings.[1][2]Contents1 United States1.1 History 1.2 Victims' rights legislation 1.3 Federal law1.3.1 Victims of Crime
Crime
Act (VOCA) 1.3.2 Crime
Crime
Victims' Rights Act of 20041.4 State law 1.5 U.S
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Morality
Morality
Morality
(from Latin: mōrālis, lit. 'manner, character, proper behavior') is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.[1] Morality
Morality
can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal.[2] Morality
Morality
may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes moral ontology, which is the origin of morals; and moral epistemology, which is the knowledge of morals. Different systems of expressing morality have been proposed, including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the merits of actions themselves
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Creditor's Rights
Creditors' rights are the procedural provisions designed to protect the ability of creditors—persons who are owed money—to collect the money that they are owed. These provisions vary from one jurisdiction to another, and may include the ability of a creditor to put a lien on a debtor's property, to effect a seizure and forced sale of the debtor's property, to effect a garnishment of the debtor's wages, and to have certain purchases or gifts made by the debtor set aside as fraudulent conveyances
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Universality (philosophy)
In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.[1] In certain theologies, universalism is the quality ascribed to an entity whose existence is consistent throughout the universe, whose being is independent of and unconstrained by the events and conditions that compose the universe, such as entropy and physical locality. This article also discusses Kantian and Platonist notions of "universal", which are considered by most philosophers to be separate notions.Contents1 Universality in ethics 2 Universality in logic 3 Universality in metaphysics 4 Quotations 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksUniversality in ethics[edit] Main article: Moral universalism When used in the context of ethics, the meaning of universal refers to that which is true for "all similarly situated individuals."[2] Rights, for example in natural rights, or in the 1789 Declaration of the
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Due Process
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person. Due process balances the power of law of the land and protects the individual person from it. When a government harms a person without following the exact course of the law, this constitutes a due process violation, which offends the rule of law. Due process has also been frequently interpreted as limiting laws and legal proceedings (see substantive due process) so that judges, instead of legislators, may define and guarantee fundamental fairness, justice, and liberty. That interpretation has proven controversial. Analogous to the concepts of natural justice, and procedural justice used in various other jurisdictions, the interpretation of due process is sometimes expressed as a command that the government must not be unfair to the people or abuse them physically
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Divine Right Of Kings
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm. It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act
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Norm (social)
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.[1] Social psychology
Social psychology
recognizes smaller group units, such as a team or an office, may also endorse norms separately or in addition to cultural or societal expectations.[2] In other words, norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct.[3] They can be viewed as cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions)[4] which represent individuals' basic knowledge of what others do and think that they should do.[5] Furthermore,
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Authors' Rights
"Author's rights" is a term frequently used in connection with laws about intellectual property.RightsTheoretical distinctionsClaim rights and liberty rights Individual and group rights Natural and legal rights Negative and positive rightsHuman rightsCivil and political Economic, social and cultural Three generationsRights by beneficiaryAnimals Authors Children Consumers Creditors Elders Fathers Fetuses Gun owners Humans Natives Intersex Kings LGBT Men Minorities Mothers Patients Plants Prisoners Students Victims Women Workers Youth Disabled personsOther groups of rightsCivil liberties Digital Linguistic Property Reproductive Self-determination of people Water and sanitationv t eThe term is considered as a direct translation of the French term droit d’auteur (also German Urheberrecht). It was indeed first (1777) promoted in France by Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, who had close relations with Benjamin Franklin
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Mothers' Rights
Mother's rights are the legal obligations for expecting mothers, existing mothers, and adoptive mothers in the United States. Issues that involve mothers' rights include labor rights, breast feeding, and family rights.Contents1 Labor rights 2 Breast feeding 3 Family rights for mothers3.1 Parental Rights 3.2 Child Custody and Support4 ReferencesLabor rights[edit] Labor rights for mothers in the United States consist of maternal leave during the various stages of pregnancy as well as when the baby is born and afterwards. They also include work procedures for new mothers returning to their workplace after giving birth. The time women are allowed to take off for childbirth is referred to as maternity leave. Each state and company has its own laws regarding the allotted time allowed off for family leave, as well as any other support given to new mothers
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Consumer Protection
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace. The laws are designed to prevent the businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors. They may also provide additional protection for those most vulnerable in society. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation that aim to protect the rights of consumers
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Student Rights In Higher Education
Student
Student
rights are those rights, such as civil, constitutional, contractual and consumer rights, which regulate student rights and freedoms and allow students to make use of their educational investment. These include such things as the right to free speech and association, to due process, equality, autonomy, safety and privacy, and accountability in contracts and advertising, which regulate the treatment of students by teachers and administrators. There is very little scholarship about student rights throughout the world. In general most countries have some kind of student rights (or rights that apply in the educational setting) enshrined in their laws and proceduralized by their court precedents. Some countries, like Romania, in the European Union, have comprehensive student bills of rights, which outline both rights and how they are to be proceduralized
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Rule Of Law
The rule of law is the principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including behaviour of government officials.[2] The phrase can be traced back to 16th century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford
Samuel Rutherford
used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.[3] John Locke
John Locke
wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. The "rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey
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Animal Rights
Animal
Animal
rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.[2] Advocates oppose the assignment of moral value and fundamental protections on the basis of species membership alone—an idea known since 1970 as speciesism, when the term was coined by Richard D. Ryder—arguing that it is a prejudice as irrational as any other.[3] They maintain that animals should no longer be viewed as property or used as fo
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