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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq
Mahbub ul Haq
for the UNDP.[1][2] The 2010 Human Development Report
Human Development Report
introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(IHDI)
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Maxima And Minima
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).[1][2][3] Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
was one of the first mathematicians to propose a general technique, adequality, for finding the maxima and minima of functions. As defined in set theory, the maximum and minimum of a set are the greatest and least elements in the set, respectively
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Frances Stewart (economist)
Frances Julia Stewart (born 4 August 1940)[1] is professor emeritus of development economics and director of the Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE), University of Oxford. A pre-eminent development economist, she was named one of fifty outstanding technological leaders for 2003 by Scientific American
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Formula
In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula
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Index (economics)
In economics and finance, an index is a statistical measure of changes in a representative group of individual data points. These data may be derived from any number of sources, including company performance, prices, productivity, and employment. Economic indices track economic health from different perspectives. Influential global financial indices such as the Global Dow, and the NASDAQ Composite
NASDAQ Composite
track the performance of selected large and powerful companies in order to evaluate and predict economic trends. The Dow Jones Industrial Average and the S&P 500 primarily track U.S. markets, though some legacy international companies are included.[1] The consumer price index tracks the variation in prices for different consumer goods and services over time in a constant geographical location, and is integral to calculations used to adjust salaries, bond interest rates, and tax thresholds for inflation
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Variable (mathematics)
In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown. Making algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers allows one to solve a range of problems in a single computation. A typical example is the quadratic formula, which allows one to solve every quadratic equation by simply substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of the given equation to the variables that represent them. The concept of a variable is also fundamental in calculus. Typically, a function y = f(x) involves two variables, y and x, representing respectively the value and the argument of the function
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Arab League
The Arab
Arab
League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية‎ al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah), formally the League of Arab
Arab
States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية‎ Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah), is a regional organization of Arab
Arab
states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.[3] Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945
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Caribbean
The Caribbean
Caribbean
(/ˌkærɪˈbiːən/ or /kəˈrɪbiən/, local most common pronunciation /ˈkærɪˌbiːən/)[3] is a region that consists of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[4] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and the North Atlantic Ocean)[5] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays
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Per Capita
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head"). The phrase thus means "by heads" or "for each head", i.e., per individual/person. The term is used in a wide variety of social sciences and statistical research contexts, including government statistics, economic indicators, and built environment studies. It is commonly and usually used in the field of statistics in place of saying "per person"[1] (although per caput is the Latin for "per head"[2])
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Natural Logarithm
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant e, where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to 7000271828182845899♠2.718281828459. The natural logarithm of x is generally written as ln x, loge x, or sometimes, if the base e is implicit, simply log x.[1] Parentheses
Parentheses
are sometimes added for clarity, giving ln(x), loge(x) or log(x). This is done in particular when the argument to the logarithm is not a single symbol, to prevent ambiguity. The natural logarithm of x is the power to which e would have to be raised to equal x. For example, ln(7.5) is 2.0149..., because e2.0149... = 7.5. The natural log of e itself, ln(e), is 1, because e1 = e, while the natural logarithm of 1, ln(1), is 0, since e0 = 1. The natural logarithm can be defined for any positive real number a as the area under the curve y = 1/x from 1 to a (the area being taken as negative when a < 1)
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Quartile
A quartile is a type of quantile. The first quartile (Q1) is defined as the middle number between the smallest number and the median of the data set. The second quartile (Q2) is the median of the data. The third quartile (Q3) is the middle value between the median and the highest value of the data set. In applications of statistics such as epidemiology, sociology and finance, the quartiles of a ranked set of data values are the four subsets whose boundaries are the three quartile points
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Gross National Income
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars)
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Meghnad Desai
Meghnad Jagdishchandra Desai, Baron Desai (born 10 July 1940) is an Indian-born, naturalised United Kingdom
United Kingdom
economist and Labour politician. He stood unsuccessfully for the position of Lord Speaker in the British House of Lords in 2011,[1] the first ever non-UK born candidate to do so. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award in the Republic of India, in 2008.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Academic career 3 Saif Al-Gaddafi thesis 4 Personal life 5 Works 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Born in Vadodara, Gujarat, India, Desai grew up with two brothers and one sister. He is said to have gone to secondary school at age seven and matriculated at 14
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Keith Griffin (economist)
Keith B. Griffin (born 1938 in Colon, Panama) is an economist, whose specialty is the economics of poverty reduction .[1] From 1979 to 1988 he was President of Magdalen College, Oxford,[2] and he remains an honorary fellow there.[3] During his presidency of Magdalen College, he and Senior Bursar R.W. Johnson worked to rescue the finances and buildings of the college, an effort described in Johnson's 2015 book Look Back in Laughter: Oxford's Postwar Golden Age.[4] Griffin was the second American to ever serve as President of an Oxford college, and the youngest since World War II.[5] After serving as President, he chaired the department of Economics at the University of California's Riverside campus.[6] Griffin originally studied at Oxford at Balliol College as a Marshall Scholar after graduating from Williams College.[6] Selected publications[edit]Keith Griffin (Editor); Mark D. Brenner; Keith Griffin; Takayoshi Kusago; Amy Ickowitz; Terry McKinley
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Gustav Ranis
Ranis is a town in the Saale-Orla-Kreis district, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated 15 km east of Saalfeld, and 30 km south of Jena. References[edit]^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde, erfüllende/beauftragende Gemeinden, Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (in German)
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Purchasing Power Parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power. Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market. The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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