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Hugo Margenat
Hugo Margenat
Hugo Margenat
(October 10, 1933 – April 7, 1957), was a Puerto Rican poet and Puerto Rican Independence advocate. His art was committed to serving a militant nationalistic agenda. He was the founder of the political youth pro-independence organizations "Acción Juventud Independentista" (Pro-independence Youth Action) and the "Federación de Universitarios Pro Independencia" (University Pro-Independence Federation of Puerto Rico).[1]Contents1 Early years 2 Influential political events 3 Nationalism 4 Written works 5 Legacy 6 Further reading 7 See also 8 ReferencesEarly years[edit] Margenat lived during an era in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
which was full of political turmoil. The island, which Spain ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War was governed by an American appointed governor in accordance to the Treaty of Paris of 1898
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San Juan Nationalist Revolt
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan (/ˌsæn ˈhwɑːn/; Spanish pronunciation: [saŋ ˈxwan], Saint John) is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
("Rich Port City")
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Nemesio Canales
Nemesio Canales
Nemesio Canales
(December 18, 1878 – September 14, 1923) was a Puerto Rican essayist, journalist, novelist, playwright, politician and activist who defended women's civil rights. As a politician, he presented a bill to the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, which was defeated 23 votes to 7, giving women their full civil rights, including the right to vote.Contents1 Early years 2 Political activist 3 Writer 4 Death4.1 Reburial5 Legacy 6 Notable family members 7 Notes 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEarly years[edit]The Canales Family Residence Museum in JayuyaCanales (birth name: Nemesio Rosario Canales Rivera[note 1]) was born on December 18, 1878 in Jayuya. He was the firstborn of Rosario Canales Quintero and Francisca Rivera Rivera. He received his primary and secondary education in schools in Utuado and Jayuya
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Andres Figueroa Cordero
Andres Figueroa Cordero
Andres Figueroa Cordero
[note 1] (November 29, 1924 – March 7, 1979) was a political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. On March 1, 1954, Figueroa Cordero together with fellow Nationalists Lolita Lebrón, Irvin Flores, and Rafael Cancel Miranda
Rafael Cancel Miranda
entered the United States Capitol building armed with automatic pistols and fired 30 shots
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Vidal Santiago Díaz
Vidal Santiago Díaz
Vidal Santiago Díaz
[note 1] (January 1, 1910 – March 1982) was a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
and served as president of the Santurce Municipal Board of officers of the party. He was also the personal barber of Nationalist leader Pedro Albizu Campos. Though not involved in the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s, Santiago Díaz's barbershop was attacked by forty armed police officers and U.S. National Guardsmen
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Griselio Torresola
Griselio Torresola
Griselio Torresola
(1925 – November 1, 1950) born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico, was one of two Puerto Rican nationalists from New York City
New York City
who attempted to assassinate United States President Harry Truman
Harry Truman
on November 1, 1950. Torresola mortally wounded White House policeman Private Leslie Coffelt
Leslie Coffelt
and wounded two other law enforcement officers. Torresola was killed by a return shot from Coffelt.Contents1 Early life and political background 2 Jayuya
Jayuya
Uprising 3 Assassination attempt 4 Aftermath 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingEarly life and political background[edit] Torresola was born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico. His family believed in the Puerto Rican independence cause. They had participated in many of the island's past revolts
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Antonio Vélez Alvarado
Antonio Vélez Alvarado
Antonio Vélez Alvarado
[note 1] a.k.a. "The Father of the Puerto Rican Flag" [1](June 12, 1864 – January 16, 1948) was a Puerto Rican journalist, politician and revolutionary who was an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. A close friend of Cuban patriot José Martí, Vélez Alvarado joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City and is among those who allegedly designed the Flag of Puerto Rico. Vélez Alvarado was one of the founding fathers of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.Contents1 Early years 2 Puerto Rican Independence 3 Design of the Puerto Rican flag 4 Puerto Rican Nationalist Party 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesEarly years[edit] Vélez Alvarado was born in the town of Manatí
Manatí
to José María Vélez Escobar and Cecilia Alvarado Rodríguez. There he received his primary and secondary education. His family were the wealthy owners of various farms in Manati
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Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff
Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff[note 1] (November 18, 1907 – November 19, 2005) was the President of the New York chapter of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party in the 1930s. In the 1990s Rieckehoff was among the protesters against the United States Navy's use of his birthplace, the island of Vieques, as a bombing range. He stood in front of the committee of the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
investigating the situation in Vieques and pleaded for the return of Vieques to the people of Puerto Rico.Contents1 Early years 2 Nationalist 3 Imprisonment 4 Vieques situation 5 Legacy 6 Further reading 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesEarly years[edit] Rieckehoff was born Máximo Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff
Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff
in Vieques, Puerto Rico. His maternal ancestors emigrated from Germany and settled in Vieques
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Olga Viscal Garriga
Dr. Olga Isabel Viscal Garriga (May 5, 1929 – June 1995) was a public orator and political activist. Born in Brooklyn, New York, she moved to Puerto Rico, where she was a student leader and spokesperson of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party's branch in Rio Piedras. As an advocate for Puerto Rican independence, she was sentenced to eight years in a U.S. federal penitentiary, for refusing to recognize the sovereign authority of the United States over Puerto Rico.Contents1 Early years 2 Student activist 3 Later years 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 Further reading 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly years[edit] Olga Isabel Viscal Garriga[note 1] was born in Brooklyn, New York
Brooklyn, New York
in 1929. Her parents, Francisco Viscal Bravo and Laura Garriga Gonzalez, had moved there from Puerto Rico in the early 1920s. Olga was one of seven children born to the couple
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Margot Arce De Vázquez
Dr. Margot Arce de Vázquez
Margot Arce de Vázquez
[note 1] (March 10, 1904 – November 14, 1990) was a writer, essayist and educator who founded the Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish Language.Contents1 Early years 2 Educator 3 Author 4 Written works 5 Final years 6 In memory 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesEarly years[edit] Arce de Vázquez was born and raised in Caguas, Puerto Rico, where she received her primary and secondary education. In 1922, she graduated from that city's Central High School and following her graduation enrolled in the University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
in Río Piedras, San Juan.[1][2][3] As a university student she sympathized with the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and became involved in the independence movement of the island. She was also the editor of the university's newspaper where she often expressed her views
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Elías Beauchamp
Elías Beauchamp
Elías Beauchamp
(1908-February 23, 1936) was a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party who assassinated Elisha Francis Riggs, the United States appointed police chief of Puerto Rico. Beauchamps was accompanied by fellow nationalist Hiram Rosado. Both men were arrested and summarily executed at the police headquarters in San Juan. News of the assassinations spread throughout the United States and lead to legislative proposal by U.S. Senator Millard Tydings, to grant independence to Puerto Rico.Contents1 Early years 2 Puerto Rican Nationalist Party 3 Events leading to a massacre 4 The Río Piedras massacre 5 The assassination of Elisha F
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Carmelo Delgado Delgado
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Carmelo Delgado Delgado[note 1] (April 20, 1913 – April 29, 1937) was a leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
(presided by Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos). Delgado joined the Abraham Lincoln International Brigade and fought against General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
and the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. The Republic's hero, Delgado Delgado, a Puerto Rican by birth and national origin, is thought to be the first U.S. citizen to die in Spain's civil war.Contents1 Early years 2 Puerto Rican Nationalist 3 Spanish Civil War 4 Aftermath 5 Military decoration 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further readingEarly years[edit] Delgado was one of three siblings born to Eladio Delgado Berrios and Flora Delgado Gonzalez in the town of Guayama, Puerto Rico
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Isabel Freire De Matos
Isabel Freire de Matos[note 1] (February 2, 1915 – September 30, 2004) was a writer, educator, journalist, and activist for Puerto Rican independence. Freire de Matos was the author of several children's books and the wife of Francisco Matos Paoli, a high-ranking member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.Contents1 Early years 2 Educator 3 Nationalist revolts of the 1950s 4 Author4.1 Written works5 Later years 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEarly years[edit] Freire de Matos (birth name: Isabel Freire Meléndez [note 2]) was born in the town of Cidra, Puerto Rico. There she received her primary and secondary education. During her years as a child she became interested in juvenile literature and poetry
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Irvin Flores
Irvin Flores
Irvin Flores
[note 1] (1925- March 20, 1994) was a political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
and an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. Flores was a leader of the Nationalist faction of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
during the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party revolts of the 1950s. On March 1, 1954, Flores together with fellow Nationalists Lolita Lebrón, Andres Figueroa Cordero, and Rafael Cancel Miranda entered the United States Capitol building armed with automatic pistols and fired 30 shots
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Ruth Mary Reynolds
Ruth Mary Reynolds
Ruth Mary Reynolds
(February 29, 1916 – December 2, 1989) was an American educator, political and civil rights activist who embraced the ideals of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. She was incarcerated in La Princesa Prison
Prison
for sedition during the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s
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