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Hugo Margenat
HUGO MARGENAT (October 10, 1933 – April 7, 1957), was a Puerto Rican poet and Puerto Rican Independence advocate. His art was committed to serving a militant nationalistic agenda. He was the founder of the political youth pro-independence organizations "Acción Juventud Independentista" (Pro-independence Youth Action) and the "Federación de Universitarios Pro Independencia" (University Pro-Independence Federation of Puerto Rico). CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Influential political events * 3 Nationalism * 4 Written works * 5 Legacy * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References EARLY YEARSMargenat lived during an era in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
which was full of political turmoil. The island, which Spain ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War was governed by an American appointed governor in accordance to the Treaty of Paris of 1898
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Nemesio Canales
NEMESIO CANALES (December 18, 1878 – September 14, 1923) was a Puerto Rican essayist, journalist, novelist, playwright, politician and activist who defended women's civil rights. As a politician, he presented a bill to the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, which was defeated 23 votes to 7, giving women their full civil rights, including the right to vote. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Political activist * 3 Writer * 4 Death * 4.1 Reburial * 5 Legacy * 6 Notable family members * 7 Notes * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links EARLY YEARS The Canales Family Residence Museum in Jayuya Canales (birth name: NEMESIO ROSARIO CANALES RIVERA ) was born on December 18, 1878 in Jayuya. He was the firstborn of Rosario Canales Quintero and Francisca Rivera Rivera. He received his primary and secondary education in schools in Utuado and Jayuya . One of these schools was Colegio Roselló, established in Utuado by Juan Luis Roselló in 1867
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San Juan, Puerto Rico
SAN JUAN (/ˌsæn ˈhwɑːn/ ; Spanish pronunciation: , Saint John ) is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census , it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
("Rich Port City"). Puerto Rico's capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo , in the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
. Several historical buildings are located in San Juan; among the most notable are the city's former defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro and Fort San Cristóbal , and La Fortaleza , the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Americas
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Elías Beauchamp
ELíAS BEAUCHAMP (1908-February 23, 1936) was a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party who assassinated Elisha Francis Riggs, the United States appointed police chief of Puerto Rico. Beauchamps was accompanied by fellow nationalist Hiram Rosado
Hiram Rosado
. Both men were arrested and summarily executed at the police headquarters in San Juan. News of the assassinations spread throughout the United States and lead to legislative proposal by U.S. Senator Millard Tydings, to grant independence to Puerto Rico. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
* 3 Events leading to a massacre * 4 The Río Piedras massacre * 5 The assassination of Elisha F
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Margot Arce De Vázquez
DR. MARGOT ARCE DE VáZQUEZ (March 10, 1904 – November 14, 1990) was a writer, essayist and educator who founded the Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish Language
Spanish Language
. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Educator * 3 Author * 4 Written works * 5 Final years * 6 In memory * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References EARLY YEARSArce de Vázquez was born and raised in Caguas, Puerto Rico
Caguas, Puerto Rico
, where she received her primary and secondary education. In 1922, she graduated from that city's Central High School and following her graduation enrolled in the University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
in Río Piedras, San Juan . As a university student she sympathized with the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and became involved in the independence movement of the island. She was also the editor of the university's newspaper where she often expressed her views
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Carmelo Delgado Delgado
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
CARMELO DELGADO DELGADO (April 20, 1913 – April 29, 1937) was a leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
(presided by Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos ). Delgado joined the Abraham Lincoln International Brigade and fought against General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
and the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
. The Republic's hero, Delgado Delgado, a Puerto Rican by birth and national origin, is thought to be the first U.S. citizen to die in Spain
Spain
's civil war
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Olga Viscal Garriga
DR. OLGA ISABEL VISCAL GARRIGA (May 5, 1929 – June 1995) was a public orator and political activist . Born in Brooklyn, New York, she moved to Puerto Rico, where she was a student leader and spokesperson of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
's branch in Rio Piedras . As an advocate for Puerto Rican independence, she was sentenced to eight years in a U.S. federal penitentiary, for refusing to recognize the sovereign authority of the United States over Puerto Rico. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Student activist * 3 Later years * 4 Legacy * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY YEARSOlga Isabel Viscal Garriga was born in Brooklyn, New York
Brooklyn, New York
in 1929. Her parents, Francisco Viscal Bravo and Laura Garriga Gonzalez, had moved there from Puerto Rico in the early 1920s
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Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff
CARLOS VéLEZ RIECKEHOFF (November 18, 1907 – November 19, 2005) was the President of the New York chapter of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party in the 1930s. In the 1990s Rieckehoff was among the protesters against the United States Navy\'s use of his birthplace, the island of Vieques , as a bombing range. He stood in front of the committee of the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
investigating the situation in Vieques and pleaded for the return of Vieques to the people of Puerto Rico. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Nationalist * 3 Imprisonment * 4 Vieques situation * 5 Legacy * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References EARLY YEARSRieckehoff was born MáXIMO CARLOS VéLEZ RIECKEHOFF in Vieques, Puerto Rico. His maternal ancestors emigrated from Germany and settled in Vieques
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Isolina Rondón
ISOLINA RONDóN (April 11, 1913 – October 2, 1990) was a political activist. She was one of the few witnesses of the killing of four Nationalists committed by local police officers in Puerto Rico during a confrontation with the supporters of the Nationalist Party that occurred in October 24, 1935, and which is known as the Río Piedras massacre . Rondón joined the political movement and became the Treasurer of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
which staged various uprisings in Puerto Rico against the colonial Government of the United States in 1950. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Nationalist * 2.1 Río Piedras massacre * 2.2 Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s * 3 Later years * 4 Further reading * 5 See also * 6 References EARLY YEARSRondón was born in Río Piedras, Puerto Rico and was raised by her upon her father's death
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Ruth Mary Reynolds
RUTH MARY REYNOLDS (February 29, 1916 – December 2, 1989) was an American educator , political and civil rights activist who embraced the ideals of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
. She was incarcerated in La Princesa Prison
Prison
for sedition during the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s . As one of the founders of the organization known as the "American League for Puerto Rico's Independence," she devoted many years of her life to the cause of Puerto Rico\'s independence from the United States
United States
after her release from prison
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Vidal Santiago Díaz
VIDAL SANTIAGO DíAZ (January 1, 1910 – March 1982) was a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
and served as president of the Santurce Municipal Board of officers of the party. He was also the personal barber of Nationalist leader Pedro Albizu Campos . Though not involved in the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Revolts of the 1950s , Santiago Díaz's barbershop was attacked by forty armed police officers and U.S. National Guardsmen . The attack was historic in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
—the first time an event of that magnitude had ever been transmitted live via radio and heard all over the island
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Griselio Torresola
GRISELIO TORRESOLA (1925 – November 1, 1950) born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico , was one of two Puerto Rican nationalists from New York City
New York City
who attempted to assassinate United States President Harry Truman on November 1, 1950. Torresola mortally wounded White House policeman Private Leslie Coffelt and wounded two other law enforcement officers. Torresola was killed by a return shot from Coffelt. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and political background * 2 Jayuya Uprising * 3 Assassination attempt * 4 Aftermath * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading EARLY LIFE AND POLITICAL BACKGROUNDTorresola was born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico. His family believed in the Puerto Rican independence cause. They had participated in many of the island's past revolts. At the age of 23 Torresola moved to New York City in August 1948 to gain work. He was employed by a New York stationery and perfume store
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Antonio Vélez Alvarado
ANTONIO VéLEZ ALVARADO a.k.a. "The Father of the Puerto Rican Flag" (June 12, 1864 – January 16, 1948) was a Puerto Rican journalist, politician and revolutionary who was an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. A close friend of Cuban patriot José Martí
José Martí
, Vélez Alvarado joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City and is among those who allegedly designed the Flag of Puerto Rico . Vélez Alvarado was one of the founding fathers of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party . CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Puerto Rican Independence * 3 Design of the Puerto Rican flag * 4 Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
* 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References EARLY YEARSVélez Alvarado was born in the town of Manatí to José María Vélez Escobar and Cecilia Alvarado Rodríguez. There he received his primary and secondary education
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Andres Figueroa Cordero
ANDRES FIGUEROA CORDERO (November 29, 1924 – March 7, 1979) was a political activist , member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. On March 1, 1954, Figueroa Cordero together with fellow Nationalists Lolita Lebrón , Irvin Flores , and Rafael Cancel Miranda entered the United States Capitol building armed with automatic pistols and fired 30 shots. Five congressmen were hit, however all the representatives survived and Figueroa Cordero, along with the other three members of his group were immediately arrested
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Irvin Flores
IRVIN FLORES (1925- March 20, 1994) was a political activist , member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
and an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. Flores was a leader of the Nationalist faction of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
during the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party revolts of the 1950s . On March 1, 1954, Flores together with fellow Nationalists Lolita Lebrón , Andres Figueroa Cordero
Andres Figueroa Cordero
, and Rafael Cancel Miranda entered the United States Capitol building armed with automatic pistols and fired 30 shots. Five congressmen were hit, however all the representatives survived and Flores, along with the other three members of his group were immediately arrested
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Helen Rodríguez Trías
HELEN RODRíGUEZ TRíAS (1929 – December 27, 2001) was a pediatrician, educator and women rights activist
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