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Hualapai Language
Havasupai– Hualapai
Hualapai
(Havasupai–Walapai) is the Native American language spoken by the Hualapai
Hualapai
(also spelled Walapai) and Havasupai peoples of northwestern Arizona. Havasupai– Hualapai
Hualapai
belongs to the Pai branch of the Yuman– Cochimí language family, together with its close relative Yavapai and with Paipai, a language spoken in northern Baja California. There are two main dialects of this language: the Havasupai
Havasupai
dialect is spoken in the bottom of the Grand Canyon, while the Hualapai
Hualapai
dialect is spoken along the southern rim. As of 2010, there were 550 speakers of Havasupai-Hualapai
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Arizona
As of 2010English 74.1% Spanish 19.5% Navajo 1.9% Other 4.5 %Demonym Arizonan[1]Capital PhoenixLargest city PhoenixLargest metro Phoenix metropolitan areaArea Ranked 6th • Total 113,990[2] sq mi (295,234 km2) • Width 310 miles (500 km) • Length 400 miles (645 km) • % water 0.35 • Latitude 31°  20′ N to 37° N • Longitude 109°  03′ W to 114°  49′ WPopulation Ranked 14th • Total 6,931,071 (2016 est.)[3] • Density 57/sq mi  (22/km2) Ranked 33rd • Median household income $52,248 [4] (33rd)Elevation • Highest point Humphreys Peak[5][6][7] 12,637 ft (3852 m) • Mean 4,100 ft  (1250 m) • Lowest point
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Mid Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedA mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned midway between an open vowel and a close vowel. Other names for a mid vowel are lowered close-mid vowel and raised open-mid vowel, though the former phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as low as open-mid; likewise, the latter phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as high as close-mid. Vowels[edit] The only mid vowel with a dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is the mid central vowel with ambiguous rounding [ə]. The IPA divides the vowel space into thirds, with the close-mid vowels such as [e] or [o] and the open-mid vowels such as [ɛ] or [ɔ] equidistant in formant space between open [a] or [ɒ] and close [i] or [u]
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Nasal Consonant
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasals in English are [n] and [m], in words such as nose and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages.Contents1 Definition 2 Voiceless nasals 3 Other kinds of nasal consonant 4 Languages without nasals 5 Lack of phonemic nasals 6 Lack of phonetic nasals 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 BibliographyDefinition[edit] Nearly all nasal consonants are nasal occlusives, in which air escapes through the nose but not through the mouth, as it is blocked (occluded) by the lips or tongue. The oral cavity still acts as a resonance chamber for the sound
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Lateral Consonant
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth. For the most common laterals, the tip of the tongue makes contact with the upper teeth (see dental consonant) or the upper gum (see alveolar consonant), but there are many other possible places for laterals to be made. The most common laterals are approximants and belong to the class of liquids, but lateral fricatives and affricates are also common in some parts of the world. Some languages, such as the Iwaidja and Ilgar languages of Australia, have lateral flaps, and others, such as the Xhosa and Zulu languages of Africa, have lateral clicks. When pronouncing the labiodental fricatives [f] and [v], the lip blocks the airflow in the centre of the vocal tract, so the airstream proceeds along the sides instead
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Flap Consonant
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.Contents1 Contrast with stops and trills 2 Tap vs. flap 3 IPA symbols 4 Types of flaps4.1 Alveolar flaps 4.2 Retroflex flaps 4.3 Lateral flaps 4.4 Non-coronal flaps 4.5 Nasal flaps 4.6 Tapped fricatives5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksContrast with stops and trills[edit] The main difference between a flap and a stop is that in a flap there is no buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation and consequently no release burst. Otherwise a flap is similar to a brief stop. Flaps also contrast with trills, where the airstream causes the articulator to vibrate. Trills may be realized as a single contact, like a flap, but are variable, whereas a flap is limited to a single contact
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Approximant Consonant
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough[1] nor with enough articulatory precision[2] to create turbulent airflow
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Aspiration (linguistics)
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.[citation needed] To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say spin [spɪn] and then pin [pʰɪn]
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Contrastive Distribution
Contrastive distribution in linguistics, as opposed to complementary distribution or free variation, is the relationship between two different elements, where both elements are found in the same environment with a change in meaning.Contents1 Phonology 2 Morphology 3 Syntax 4 See alsoPhonology[edit] In phonology, two sounds of a language are said to be in contrastive distribution if replacing one with the other in the same phonological environment results in a change in meaning. If a sound is in contrastive distribution, it is considered a phoneme in that language. For example, in English, the sounds [p] and [b] can both occur word-initially, as in the words pat and bat (minimal pairs), which are distinct morphemes. Therefore, [p] and [b] are in contrastive distribution, and thus they are phonemes of English. Note that two sounds which are in contrastive distribution in one language can be in complementary distribution or free variation in another
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Front Vowel
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the tongue is positioned as far in front as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes also called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels.[1] Near-front vowels are essentially a type of front vowels; no language is known to contrast front and near-front vowels based on frontness alone. Rounded front vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation
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Back Vowel
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Back vowels are sometimes also called dark vowels because they are perceived as sounding darker than the front vowels.[1] Near-back vowels are essentially a type of back vowels; no language is known to contrast back and near-back vowels based on backness alone.Contents1 Articulation 2 Partial list 3 See also 4 ReferencesArticulation[edit] In their articulation, back vowels do not form a single category, but may be either raised vowels such as [u] or retracted vowels such as [ɑ].[2] Unrounded back vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-back in their articulation
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Close Vowel
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology [1]), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a close vowel is that the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth as it can be without creating a constriction. A constriction would produce a sound that would be classified as a consonant. The term "close" (/kloʊs/, as in the opposite of "far") is prescribed by the International Phonetic Association. Close vowels are often referred to as "high" vowels, as in the Americanist phonetic tradition, because the tongue is positioned high in the mouth during articulation. In the context of the phonology of any particular language, a high vowel can be any vowel that is more close than a mid vowel
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Open Vowel
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth. Open vowels are sometimes also called low vowels (in American terminology [1]) in reference to the low position of the tongue. In the context of the phonology of any particular language, a low vowel can be any vowel that is more open than a mid vowel
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Fricative Consonant
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German [x] (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ] (appearing twice in the name Llanelli). This turbulent airflow is called frication. A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ] are examples of sibilants. The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" can be a synonym of "fricative", or (as in e.g. Uralic linguistics) refer to non-sibilant fricatives only
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Isochrony
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language. Rhythm
Rhythm
is an aspect of prosody, others being intonation, stress and tempo of speech.[1] Three alternative ways in which a language can divide time are postulated:The duration of every syllable is equal (syllable-timed); The duration of every mora is equal (mora-timed). The interval between two stressed syllables is equal (stress-timed).The idea as such was first expressed by Kenneth L. Pike
Kenneth L. Pike
in 1945, though the concept of language naturally occurring in chronologically and rhythmically equal measures is found at least as early as 1775 (in Prosodia Rationalis). This has implications for language typology: D. Abercrombie claimed "As far as is known, every language in the world is spoken with one kind of rhythm or with the other ... French, Telugu and Yoruba ... are syllable-timed languages, ..
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