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Hotak Dynasty
The Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
(Pashto: د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني‎) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji
Ghilji
Pashtuns,[1][2] established in April 1709 by
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Siege Of Isfahan
Decisive Hotaki Afghan victoryFall of the Safavid capitalBelligerents Hotaki Dynasty Safavid EmpireCommanders and leadersMahmud Hotaki Shah Sultan Hussein (POW)Strengthunknown unknownCasualties and lossesunknown unknownv t eCampaigns of Ashraf HotakGulnabad Isfahan Kermanshah Safavid restorationDamghan Murche-Khort ZarghanThe siege of Isfahan
Isfahan
was a six-month-long siege of Isfahan, the capital of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran, by the Hotaki-led Afghan army. It lasted from March to October 1722 and resulted in the city's fall and the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. Background[edit] The Iranian Safavid Empire, once a powerful empire, had been in decline since the late 17th century
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Battle Of Damghan (1729)
Khorasan CampaignMashhad Sangan SabzevarAfghan Campaigns1st Afghan CampaignKafer Qal'eh Herat 17292nd Afghan Campaign QandaharSafavid restorationDamghan Khwar pass Murche-Khort Isfahan ZarghanFirst Ottoman WarWest Persian CampaignNahavand MalayerTahmasp's CampaignYerevanMesopotamian Campaign1st Baghdad Samarra KirkukCaucasus CampaignGanja YeghevārdIndian CampaignKhyber pass Battle of Karnal Sindh ExpeditionCentral Asian CampaignBukhara PetnakDagestan CampaignAndalalPersian Gulf Campaign Second Ottoman WarSiege of Mosul Battle of Mosul Battle of KarsRebellions & Civil WarRebellion of 1733 Khanate revolt Rebellion of 1744v t eCampaigns of Ashraf HotakGulnabad Isfahan Kermanshah Safavid restorationDamghan Murche-Khort ZarghanThe Battle of Damghan or Battle of Mihmandoost was fought on September 29 to October 5, 1729, near the city of Damghan
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60Turkmenistan Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (English: "State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333Official languages Turkmen[1]Inter-ethnic languages RussianEthnic groups (2003)85% Turkmen 5% Uzbek 4% Russian 6% others[2]Demonym TurkmenGovernment Unitary authoritarian presidential republic• PresidentGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow• Chairman of the MejlisAkja NurberdiýewaLegislature MejlisFormation• 
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Rebellion
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.[1] It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, "I renew war" (from re- ("again") + bellō ("I wage war/I revolt"). The rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the term rebellion also refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and then manifests itself by the refusal to submit or to obey the authority responsible for this situation. Rebellion
Rebellion
can be individual or collective, peaceful (civil disobedience, civil resistance, and nonviolent resistance) or violent (terrorism, sabotage and guerrilla warfare.)[citation needed] In political terms, rebellion and revolt are often distinguished by their different aims
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Isfahan
Isfahan
Isfahan
(Persian: اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān [esfæˈhɒːn] ( listen)), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province
Isfahan Province
in Iran, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran. The Greater Isfahan Region
Greater Isfahan Region
had a population of 2,101,220 in the 2016 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran
Iran
after Tehran and Mashhad
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Nader Shah Afshar
Khorasan CampaignMashhad Sangan SabzevarAfghan Campaigns1st Afghan CampaignKafer Qal'eh Herat
Herat
17292nd Afghan Campaign QandaharSafavid restorationDamghan Khwar pass Murche-Khort Isfahan ZarghanFirst Ottoman WarWest Persian CampaignNahavand MalayerTahmasp's CampaignYerevanMesopotamian Campaign1st Baghdad Samarra Kirkuk Caucasus <
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Ottomans
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Turkish: Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı ("Osman" being corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299–1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for its entire 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present
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Shia Islam
Sunni
Sunni
theological traditionsIlm al-KalamAsh'ari1 Maturidi Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2Shi'a Twelver3PrinciplesTawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah QiyamahPracticesSalah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commandin
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Mughul Empire
The Mughal Empire
Empire
(Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‬‎, translit. Mughliyah Saltanat)[8][2] or Mogul Empire[9] was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526
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Khanate Of Bukhara
The Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
(or Khanate of Bukhoro) (Persian: خانات بخارا‎; Uzbek: Buxoro Xonligi) was a Central Asian[4] state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century. Bukhara
Bukhara
became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid
Shaybanid
empire during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan (1533–1540). The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid
Shaybanid
ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II
Abdullah Khan II
(r. 1577–1598). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty (Astrakhanids or Hashtarkhanids). They were the last Genghisid descendants to rule Bukhara. In 1740, it was conquered by Nadir Shah, the Shah
Shah
of Iran
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Ottoman Turks
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Turkish: Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı ("Osman" being corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299–1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for its entire 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present
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Sultan Husayn
Sultan Husayn
Sultan Husayn
(also known as Soltan Hosayn and Soltan Hosein), (October 1668 – November 1726) (Persian: شاه سلطان حسین‎) reigned 1694–1722; was a Safavid
Safavid

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