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Hormonal Contraception
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system. Almost all methods are composed of steroid hormones, although in India
India
one selective estrogen receptor modulator is marketed as a contraceptive. The original hormonal method—the combined oral contraceptive pill—was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960.[1] In the ensuing decades many other delivery methods have been developed, although the oral and injectable methods are by far the most popular. Altogether, 18% of the world's contraceptive users rely on hormonal methods.[2] Hormonal contraception is highly effective: when taken on the prescribed schedule, users of steroid hormone methods experience pregnancy rates of less than 1% per year
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Sexually Transmitted Infection
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.[1][5] Many times STIs initially do not cause symptoms.[1] This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others.[6][7] Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain.[1] STIs can be transmitted to an infant before or during childbirth and may result in poor outcomes for the baby.[1][8] Some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant.[1] More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity.[1] Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.[1] Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts.[1] Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis.[1] While usually spread by sex, some STIs c
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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
(PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.[4][14] Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.[3] Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.[4] PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[6][7][15] Risk factors include obesity, not enough physical exercise, and
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Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer
is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.[4][9] It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[10] When this process begins, there may be no or only vague symptoms.[1] Symptoms
Symptoms
become more noticeable as the cancer progresses.[1][11] These symptoms may include bloating, pelvic pain, abdominal swelling, and loss of appetite, among others.[1] Common areas to which the cancer may spread include the lining of the abdomen, lymph nodes, lungs, and liver.[12] The risk of ovarian cancer increases in women who have ovulated more over their lifetime
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Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).[1] It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[8] The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period.[1] Other symptoms include pain with urination, pain during sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain.[1] Endometrial cancer occurs most commonly after menopause.[2] Approximately 40% of cases are related to obesity.[3] Endometrial cancer is also associated with excessive estrogen exposure, high blood pressure and diabetes.[1] Whereas taking estrogen alone increases the risk of endometrial cancer, taking both estrogen and a progestogen in combination, as in most birth control pills, decreases the risk.[1][3] Between two and five percent of cases are related to genes inherited from the parents.[3] Endometrial cancer is sometimes loosely referred to as "uterine cancer", although it is disti
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Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.[1] It occurs in the setting of chronic liver inflammation, and is most closely linked to chronic viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C) or exposure to toxins such as alcohol or aflatoxin. Certain diseases, such as hemochromatosis and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, markedly increase the risk of developing HCC. Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome
and NASH are also increasingly recognized as risk factors for HCC.[2] As with any cancer, the treatment and prognosis of HCC vary depending on the specifics of tumor histology, size, how far the cancer has spread, and overall health. The vast majority of HCC occurs in Asia
Asia
and sub-Saharan Africa, in countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic and many are infected from birth
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Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer
is a cancer arising from the cervix.[1] It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[12] Early on, typically no symptoms are seen.[1] Later symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse.[1] While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may also indicate the presence of cervical cancer.[13] Hum
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International Agency For Research On Cancer
The International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cancer
(IARC; French: Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations. Its main offices are in Lyon, France. Its role is to conduct and coordinate research into the causes of cancer. It also collects and publishes surveillance data regarding the occurrence of cancer worldwide.[2] It maintains a series of monographs on the carcinogenic hazards to humans posed by a variety of agents, mixtures and exposures.[3] Following its inception, IARC received numerous requests for lists of known and suspected human carcinogens
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Amenorrhea
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method. Outside the reproductive years, there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. Primary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems, such as the congenital absence of the uterus or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age
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Ovaries
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilised by a sperm. There is an ovary (from Latin
Latin
ovarium, meaning egg/nut) found on the left and the right side of the body. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause
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Contraceptive Implant
A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the timed release of hormones to hinder ovulation or sperm development, the ability of copper to act as a natural spermicide within the uterus, or it may work using a non-hormonal, physical blocking mechanism
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Androgen
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.[1] This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex characteristics at puberty. Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and the adrenal glands. Androgens increase in both boys and girls during puberty.[2] The major androgen in males is testosterone.[3] Dihydrotestosterone
Dihydrotestosterone
(DHT) and androstenedione are of equal importance in male development.[3] DHT in utero causes differentiation of penis, scrotum and prostate
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Hirsutism
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.[1][2] It may refer to a male pattern of hair growth that may be a sign of a more serious medical condition,[2] especially if it develops well after puberty.[citation needed] It can be caused by increased levels of androgen hormones. The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score
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Menorrhagia
Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).[1] Abnormal uterine bleeding can be caused by structural abnormalities in the reproductive tract, anovulation, bleeding disorders, hormone issues (such as hypothyroidism) or cancer of the reproductive tract. Initial evaluation aims at figuring out pregnancy status, menopausal status, and the source of bleeding. Treatment depends on the cause, severity, and interference with quality of life.[2] Initial treatment often involve contraceptive pills
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Dysmenorrhea
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.[1][2] Its usual onset occurs around the time that menstruation begins.[1] Symptoms typically last less than three days.[1] The pain is usually in the pelvis or lower abdomen.[1] Other symptoms may include back pain, diarrhea, or nausea.[1] In young women painful periods often occur without an underlying problem.[3] In older women it is more often due to an underlying issues such as uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, or endometriosis.[3] It is more common among those with heavy periods, irregular periods, whose periods started before twelve years of age, or who have a low body weight.[1] A pelvic exam in those who are sexually active and ultrasound may be useful to help in diagnosis.[1] Conditions that should be ruled out include ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, interstitial cystitis, and chronic pelvic pain.[1]
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Contraceptive Implants
A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the timed release of hormones to hinder ovulation or sperm development, the ability of copper to act as a natural spermicide within the uterus, or it may work using a non-hormonal, physical blocking mechanism
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